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Statements regarding circumcision by various medical authorities

2020.10.30 15:25 DarthEquus Statements regarding circumcision by various medical authorities

🇦🇺 Australia & New Zealand 🇳🇿

Australian College of Paediatrics

"The possibility that routine circumcision may contravene human rights has been raised because circumcision is performed on a minor and is without proven medical benefit. Whether these legal concerns are valid will probably only be known if the matter is determined in a court of law .....Neonatal male circumcision has no medical indication. It is a traumatic procedure performed without anaesthesia to remove a normal and healthy prepuce."

Australian Medical Association

"The Australian College of Paediatrics should continue to discourage the practice of circumcision in newborns."

Royal Australian College of Physicians

"After reviewing the currently available evidence, the RACP believes that the frequency of diseases modifiable by circumcision, the level of protection offered by circumcision and the complication rates of circumcision do not warrant routine infant circumcision in Australia and New Zealand."

Royal Australasian College of Physicians

"Ethical and human rights concerns have been raised regarding elective infant male circumcision because it is recognized that the foreskin has a functional role, the operation is non-therapeutic and the infant is unable to consent. After reviewing the currently available evidence, the RACP believes that the frequency of diseases modifiable by circumcision, the level of protection offered by circumcision and the complication rates of circumcision do not warrant routine infant circumcision in Australia and New Zealand.
“The potential harms include contravention of individual rights, loss of choice, loss of function, procedural and psychological complications. . . . A boy circumcised as an infant may deeply resent this when he grows older; he may want what he cannot have – not to have been circumcised. . . . The option of leaving circumcision until later, when the boy is old enough to make a decision for himself does need to be raised with parents and considered. . . . The ethical merit of this option is that it seeks to respect the child’s physical integrity, and capacity for autonomy by leaving the options open for him to make his own autonomous choice in the future.”

🇧🇪 Belgium 🇧🇪

Belgium Advisory Committee on Bioethics

"In the absence of a medical indication, this intervention undermines personal physical integrity, and it is irreversible as interventions which aim to reconstruct the foreskin do not restore the original situation.
"Given the age of the baby or young child, he cannot give his opinion and his informed consent cannot be sought. It cannot be assumed that a child, and certainly a baby, would consent. An adolescent of 14 years old can be subjected to such social and familial pressure that it cannot be reasonably assumed that his consent has been proven.
"The best way forward would be to strive for a symbolic practice, in which physical integrity would be respected (in other words, no cutting of the flesh). In this way, all religious sensitivities would be respected, without transgressing anyone’s physical integrity."

🇨🇦 Canada 🇨🇦

Canadian Pediatric Society

"Neonatal circumcision is a contentious issue in Canada. The procedure often raises ethical and legal considerations, in part because it has lifelong consequences and is performed on a child who cannot give consent. Infants need a substitute decision maker – usually their parents – to act in their best interests. Yet the authority of substitute decision makers is not absolute. In most jurisdictions, authority is limited only to interventions deemed to be medically necessary. In cases in which medical necessity is not established or a proposed treatment is based on personal preference, interventions should be deferred until the individual concerned is able to make their own choices."

College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia

"Under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, an infant has rights that include security of person, life, freedom and bodily integrity. Routine infant male circumcision is an unnecessary and irreversible procedure. Therefore, many consider it to be 'unwarranted mutilating surgery.'
"Many adult men are increasingly concerned about whether their parents had the right to give consent for infant male circumcision. They claim that an infant’s rights should take priority over any parental rights to make such a decision. This procedure should be delayed to a later date when the child can make his own informed decision. Parental preference alone does not justify a non‐therapeutic procedure.... Advise parents that the current medical consensus is that routine infant male circumcision is not a recommended procedure; it is non‐therapeutic and has no medical prophylactic basis; current evidence indicates that previously‐thought prophylactic public health benefits do not out‐weigh the potential risks..... Routine infant male circumcision does cause pain and permanent loss of healthy tissue."

College of Physicians and Surgeons of Saskatchewan

"While the College's primary mandate is public protection, we do encourage physicians to give careful thought to the downstream risks they may incur by taking an inappropriately casual approach to infant male circumcision driven exclusively by parental preference without valid medical indication for the procedure."

🇩🇰 Denmark 🇩🇰

The Danish Medical Association (Lægeforeningen)

"We are fundamentally opposed to male circumcision unless there is a medical reason such as phimosis for carrying out the operation. It's very intrusive that adults may decide for a newborn to undergo a surgical procedure that is not medically justified and it's effect is lifelong. When a boy reaches the age of consent, he may then decide, but until then the requirements of the individual's right to self-determination prevail."

Danish Society for Anaesthesiology and Intensive-care Medicine

"We cannot vouch for male circumcision under local anesthesia. There is a risk of insufficient assessment and we would never perform medically indicated penile surgery under local anesthesia. Children have the same right as adults to up-to-date pain relief before, during, and after surgery. That children rarely have the language to express pain, we see as an aggravating circumstance.
"We recommend that non-medically indicated interventions be postponed until the age of 18 years in which the patient himself is able to give consent.
"Circumcision is a surgical procedure with a risk of complications both related to the operation and the anesthetic."

🇪🇺 European Union 🇪🇺

Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly

Representing 47 countries
"One category [of children’s harm] is particulary worrisome, namely violations of the physical integrity of children which supporters tend to present as beneficial to the children themselves despite evidently negative life-long consequences in many cases: female genital mutilation, the circumcision of young boys for religious reasons, medical interventions during the early childhood of intersex children as well as the submission to or coercion of children into piercings, tattoos or plastic surgery. The Parliamentary Assembly should urge member States to promote further awareness in their societies of the potential risks for children’s physical and mental health of the above-mentioned procedures. Member States should take legislative and policy measures that help reinforce child protection in this context by giving primary consideration to the best interest of the child.”

🇫🇮 Finland 🇫🇮

Finnish Association of Pediatric Surgeons (Sulamaa Society)

"Let the boys decide for themselves the circumcision.
"Circumcision of boys is an irreversible and painful procedure that can also cause serious complications. For this reason, circumcision for a person who is unable to consent for non-medical reasons violates fundamental medical ethical principles.
"There are no health grounds for non-medical circumcision of boys in the Nordic countries. Factors that may support circumcision of adult men are very irrelevant to young children in the Nordic countries. Boys can later take a stand on the measure themselves when they are able to give their consent, given their age and level of development. As ombudsmen for children and pediatric medical professionals, we believe that circumcision of a child who is unable to consent without medical justification is contrary to Articles 12 and 24 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. According to Article 12, the child has the right to express his or her views on matters concerning him or her."

Finnish Medical Association

"The parents requesting ritual circumcision of the boy should be discussed with giving up the procedure or postponing it to a time when the boy is able to decide for himself.
"Circumcision always exposes the patient to complications. Taken in a preventive sense, the measure will not bring any health benefits other than the possible prevention of HIV in developing countries. Thus, it is comparable to female circumcision. Because proper consent cannot be obtained from a small son, both ethically and legally, circumcision violates an individual’s freedom and personal integrity. As such, the procedure is contrary to medical ethics."

Finnish Central Union for Child Welfare

"The Central Union for Child Welfare considers that circumcision of boys that violates the personal integrity of the boys is not acceptable unless it is done for medical reasons to treat an illness. The basis for the measures of a society must be an unconditional respect for the bodily integrity of an under-aged person.
"Circumcision intervenes in the sexual integrity of a male child causing a permanent change in organisms and has consequences pertaining to both health and quality of life.
"The circumcision of girls is rightly considered as inhuman mutilation of the genitals and is punished abuse. Also boys must be guaranteed a similar protection by law."

🇩🇪 Germany 🇩🇪

German Pediatric Association

"Initially, it should be observed that there is no reason from a medical point of view to remove an intact foreskin from underage boys or boys unable to give consent. . . . The male foreskin is a part of the skin of the organ and fulfills important functions that protect the very sensitive glans. . . . Circumcision can lead to erectile dysfunction [and] . . . considerable limitations to sex life and cause psychological stresses. . . . Boys have, according to our sense of justice, the same basic constitutional legal rights to physical integrity as girls, they must not be disadvantaged due to their sex.”

🇬🇧 Great Britain 🇬🇧

Royal College of Surgeons of England

"The one absolute indication for circumcision is scarring of the opening of the foreskin making it non- retractable (pathological phimosis). This is unusual before five years of age. ...The parents and, when competent, the child, must be made fully aware of the implications of this operation as it is a non-reversible procedure."

British Medical Association

"It is now widely accepted, including by the BMA, that this surgical procedure has medical and psychological risks. .... very similar arguments are also used to try and justify very harmful cultural procedures, such as female genital mutilation or ritual scarification. Furthermore, the harm of denying a person the opportunity to choose not to be circumcised must also be taken into account, together with the damage that can be done to the individual’s relationship with his parents and the medical profession if he feels harmed by the procedure. .... parental preference alone is not sufficient justification for performing a surgical procedure on a child. .... The BMA considers that the evidence concerning health benefit from non-therapeutic circumcision is insufficient for this alone to be a justification for doing it."

🇮🇸 Iceland 🇮🇸

Icelandic Medical Association

"It's the general opinion of the Icelandic Medical Association (IMA) that unnecessary medical procedures should not be performed on children, and in that regards the IMA references the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. The circumcision of boys, that has no medical purpose, but can lead to serious complications qualifies as such a procedure."

🇳🇱 The Netherlands 🇳🇱

Royal Dutch Medical Association

“There is no convincing evidence that circumcision is useful or necessary in terms of prevention or hygiene. Partly in light of the complications which can arise during or after circumcision, circumcision is not justifiable except on medical/therapeutic grounds. . . . Contrary to what is often thought, circumcision entails the risk of medical and psychological complications. . . . Non-therapeutic circumcision of male minors is contrary to the rule that minors may only be exposed to medical treatments if illness or abnormalities are present. . . . Non-therapeutic circumcision of male minors conflicts with the child’s right to autonomy and physical integrity. . . . Complications in the area of sexuality have also been reported as have extreme pain experiences in newborns causing behavioral changes which are still apparent years later. Similarly, the high social costs of circumcision as a result of complications have been cited. . . . The foreskin is a complex, erotogenic structure that plays an important role in the mechanical function of the penis during sexual acts, such as penetrative intercourse and masturbation. The many attempts by men to restore their foreskins by mechanical or surgical means also contradict the idea that the foreskin is a useless part of the body.”
This policy has been endorsed by several other Dutch organizations:

🇮🇸🇬🇱🇫🇴 Nordic Countries 🇳🇴🇪🇪🇦🇽

The Nordic Association of Clinical Sexology

Representing Danish, Estonian, Finnish, Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish clinical sexologists
"The penile foreskin is a natural and integral part of the normal male genitalia. The foreskin has a number of important protective and sexual functions. It protects the penile glans against trauma and contributes to the natural functioning of the penis during sexual activity. Ancient historic accounts and recent scientific evidence leave little doubt that during sexual activity the foreskin is a functional and highly sensitive, erogenous structure, capable of providing pleasure to its owner and his potential partners.
"As clinical sexologists, we are concerned about the human rights aspects associated with the practice of non-therapeutic circumcision of young boys. To cut off the penile foreskin in a boy with normal, healthy genitalia deprives him of his right to grow up and make his own informed decision. Unless there are compelling medical reasons to operate before a boy reaches an age and a level of maturity at which he is capable of providing informed consent, the decision to alter the appearance, sensitivity and functionality of the penis should be left to its owner, thus upholding his fundamental rights to protection and bodily integrity.
"Every person's right to bodily integrity goes hand in hand with his or her sexual autonomy."

Nordic Ombudsmen for Children and Pediatric Experts

Representing Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, and Greenland
"Circumcision, performed without a medical indication, on a person who is incapable of giving consent, violates fundamental medical-ethical principles, not least because the procedure is irreversible, painful, and may cause serious complications. There are no health-related reasons for circumcising young boys in the Nordic countries. Circumstances that may make circumcision advantageous for adult men are of little relevance to young boys in the Nordic countries, and on these matters the boys will have the opportunity to decide for themselves when they reach the age and maturity required to give consent."

🇳🇴 Norway 🇳🇴

Norwegian Nursing Association

"[The Norsk Sykepleierforbund opposes] exposing healthy children to an irreversible, painful and risky intervention, without their own consent. ...There is no medical indication for the procedure. In our view, it is problematic to establish different legal standards depending on gender. Circumcision / genital mutilation of women is criminalized, while circumcision of boys is proposed institutionalized through the public health system.”

Norwegian Council for Medical Ethics

"Among other things, the council says that ritual circumcision of boys has no established medical benefit . . . . circumcision of boys is not consistent with important principles of medical ethics . . . it is an important factor that the child cannot give consent."

🇿🇦 South Africa 🇿🇦

South African Medical Association

"The Committee stated that it was unethical and illegal to perform circumcision on infant boys in this instance. In particular, the Committee expressed serious concern that not enough scientifically-based evidence was available to confirm that circumcisions prevented HIV contraction and that the public at large was influenced by incorrect and misrepresented information. The Committee reiterated its view that it did not support circumcision to prevent HIV transmission."

🇸🇮 Slovenia 🇸🇮

Slovenian Human Rights Ombudsman

"However, if the circumcision of the child is not medically indicated, but is only the result of the belief of his parents (religious or otherwise), such an intervention has no legal basis. It does not even matter whether the child explicitly opposed the procedure. Interference with the physical integrity of a child solely because of the wishes of his or her legal representatives or guardians therefore constitutes an inadmissible interference with his or her body and, in our opinion, also has signs of criminal conduct."

🇸🇪 Sweden 🇸🇪

Swedish Pediatric Society

"There is no medical reason to circumcise little boys; the procedure is painful, irreversible and can cause complications, according to Sweden's children's ombudsman and representatives for several healthcare organizations."
"It was emphasized that the aim should, as far as possible, be for the child / young man himself to be allowed to take a stand on circumcision.

The ombudsman Fredrik Malmberg, together with representatives from the Swedish Society of Medicine (SLS), the Swedish Society of Health Professionals (Vårdförbundet), the Swedish Paediatric Society (BLF), and the Swedish Association of Pediatric Surgeons (SLF), argues that:

"Swedish law requires that the child's will be taken into account wherever possible. Circumcision is a procedure which is typically carried out at a very young age and it is this issue of consent which is paramount, they argue. "We consider circumcision of boys without the child's consent to be in contravention of article 12 of UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) which gives children the right to have an opinion in matters which concern them." They furthermore argue for a change in Swedish legislation in order to meet the human rights of the child and medical ethics."

🇺🇸 United States 🇺🇸

American Academy of Pediatrics

The 2012 Policy Statement is often misquoted as a recommendation for circumcision. The AAP does not, nor has ever, recommended circumcision.
"Evaluation of current evidence indicates that the health benefits of newborn male circumcision outweigh the risks . . . . Although health benefits are not great enough to recommend routine circumcision for all male newborns, the benefits of circumcision are sufficient to justify access to this procedure for families choosing it and to warrant third-party payment for circumcision of male newborns."
The AAP's 2012 Infant Circumcision Policy was formally rejected by leading pediatric doctors in Austria, Britain, Denmark, England, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Sweden, and the Netherlands and by senior pediatricians in Canada, the Czech Republic, France, and Poland. Their letter written in response to the AAP's task force opinion, Cultural Bias in the AAP’s 2012 Technical Report and Policy Statement on Male Circumcision stated:
"Seen from the outside, cultural bias reflecting the normality of nontherapeutic male circumcision in the United States seems obvious, and the [AAP's 2012] report’s conclusions [claiming "benefits" of non-therapeutic circumcision justify it being covered by insurance] are different from those reached by physicians in other parts of the Western world, including Europe, Canada, and Australia. In this commentary, a different view is presented by non–US-based physicians and representatives of general medical associations and societies for pediatrics, pediatric surgery, and pediatric urology in Northern Europe. To these authors, only one of the arguments put forward by the American Academy of Pediatrics has some theoretical relevance in relation to infant male circumcision; namely, the possible protection against urinary tract infections in infant boys, which can easily be treated with antibiotics without tissue loss. The other claimed health benefits, including protection against HIV/AIDS, genital herpes, genital warts, and penile cancer, are questionable, weak, and likely to have little public health relevance in a Western context, and they do not represent compelling reasons for surgery before boys are old enough to decide for themselves.
"There is growing consensus among physicians, including those in the United States, that physicians should discourage parents from circumcising their healthy infant boys because nontherapeutic circumcision of underage boys in Western societies has no compelling health benefits, causes postoperative pain, can have serious long-term consequences, constitutes a violation of the United Nations’ Declaration of the Rights of the Child, and conflicts with the Hippocratic oath: primum non nocere: First, do no harm."
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2020.04.28 06:14 gnikivar2 The Ghost of Pandemics Past: HIV in South Africa, Russia, and Uganda

The last global pandemic to terrify society was HIV/AIDS, a virus that has infected 75 million people and killed 32 million. HIV was a disease that in its early stages was easy to ignore because it was most often found in stigmatized groups of people such as sex workers, men who have sex with men, and injectible drug users. However, HIV has spread into much wider and today, nearly 1% of the world's population is HIV positive. In this podcast episode I will be exploring the factors that have exacerbated the spread of HIV. In part one, I will discuss the massive racial, economic, and gender inequalities that have exacerbated the HIV epidemic in South Africa. In part two, I will describe the role social stigma and discriminatory and cruel practices have led to the unchecked growth of HIV in South Africa. Finally, in part three, I will discuss how economic growth paradoxically led to the growth of HIV in Uganda.
South Africa today is the epicenter of the global HIV pandemic with over 12 million HIV positive people making up 20.8% of South Africa's total population. South Africa's HIV pandemic cannot be understood without first exploring the massive structural inequalities that have long defined South Africa. Apartheid's strict residency laws that forbid black families from permanently settling in cities, and the labor demands of South Africa's booming mining economy led to one member of 36% of households working as a migrant in the mines. Men largely lived in single sex labor barracks, where the use of sex workers unsurprisingly became common, creating an environment where STD could spread rapidly. Miners are six times more likely to have HIV than non-miners, and migration from neignoring southern African nations paying a key role in the growth of HIV throughout southern Africa. South Africa today has the highest gini coefficient, a standard measure of inequality, in the world with levels of HIV prevalence shaped by this inequality. For example, women who live in the most unequal decile of municipalities have positive HIV rates more than 4 times the least unequal decile. Massive economic inequality creates situations where desperately poor women have transactional sex with richer men for money. Finally, gender inequality has exacerbated the HIV crisis in South Africa. 17.41% of women in southern Africa face non-partner sexual violence, among the highest in the world placing women in situations where coercion and fear of force makes it difficult to say no to sex, or demand a condom. On top of these inequalities, was government incompetence in dealing with HIV. Thabo Mbeki, president of South Africa from 1999 to 2008, believed conspiracy theories that HIV was not the cause of AIDS, and refused to invest in life saving anti-retroviral treatments even when pharmaceutical companies gave medication free of cost even as neighboring countries scaled up their programs. The cost of inaction by Mbeki's government was the excess mortality of 365,000 deaths.
South Africa is hardly alone in denying the reality of HIV. Since the first to suffer from HIV are often men who have sex with men, sex workers and injectable drug users, societies ignore the dangers of HIV. Russia has approximately 1.8 million injectable drug users, originally the primary vector of transmission of HIV in Russia. Instead of following harm reduction policies the government has chosen to crack down on drug use. Approximately 200,000 drug users are in Russian prisons, methadone treatment is banned, and organizations that provide clean needles face continuous harassment. The Russian state today is closely allied with the Orthodox church which is fiercely opposed to any outreach to the gay community, and sex education has been severely curtailed. At the same time NGOs that provide information about HIV and access to testing and treatment have been hounded for having international ties, and LGBT employees. Russia has also made little effort to provide treatment to HIV positive people. Today, only 36% of Russians receive ARV treatment, one of the lowest rates in the world. Less than 20% of HIV positive drug users receive ARV treatment, and just 5% of HIV positive prisoners receive ARV treatment. In addition to saving lives, treatment for HIV reduces the viral load to the point that transmission of HIV is neglible. The lack of prevention or treatment in Russia has resulted in Russia having one of the fastest growing HIV outbreaks in the world. Today, approximately 1.3% of Russia is HIV positive, and the number of new infections in Russia is increasing by 10-15% a year. Moreover, the percent of HIV transmitted through heterosexual sex is steadily rising, putting more and more Russians, even Russians not seen as "deviant" at risk. Ironically, the Russian government has the capacity to be effective when it wants to be. For example, the Russian government has almost eliminated Mother to Child Transmission of HIV. It is possible HIV will grow to an uncontrollable point because the government was unwilling to act.
The growth of HIV can just as much be the result of policy success as policy failure. Yoweri Museveni, as I described in a previous podcast episode, restored economic growth to Uganda after decades of misrule by Idi Amin, and brutal civil war. Economic growth in Uganda was consistently above 6% a year in the 1980s and 1990s, international trade grew seven-fold between 1986 and 2000, and the population of Kampala increased five-fold during this same period. The result of this economic growth was large number of truck drivers carrying goods, and male migrants streaming into urban slums, both populations susceptible to contracting HIV. Research has found every doubling of exports results in a four-fold increase in HIV, with 30-60% of Uganda's growth in HIV explained by increased economic activity. Moreover, HIV rates are consistently between 25-32% for truckers, and HIV rates are higher along major transportation corridors. HIV rates are also higher in urban areas, and the more affluent southern provinces. HIV rapidly soared in Uganda, and by 1991 10.4% of Ugandan adults were HIV positive. However, economic growth and the growth in institutional capacity responsible for the economic growth allowed Uganda to successfully combat HIV. Government and civil society worked together to educate the public about the risks of HIV, and expand access to testing. Access to antiretroviral treatment was expanded and made free. These programs have successfully allowed to dramatically reduce the prevalence of HIV from 10.4% of the population to 5.7% of the population.
The explosion of HIV in South Africa, Russia and Uganda leave important warnings for out current fight against COVID-19. For example, systematic racial inequality has drastically increased mortality among black people in the United States. Assumptions about who could act as vectors for COVID-19 led to decisions made upon false assumption. Finally, COVID-19 has disproportionately hit the most vital nodes of the global economy. While there are important lessons to be learned from looking at the successes other nations have had at containing and reducing levels of HIV, which I will explore in the second part of this miniseries.
Selected Sources:Migration and health in Southern Africa: 100 years and still circulating, Mark N. Lurie a , and Brian G. WilliamsMigration and HIV/AIDS in South Africa, Jonathan Crush , Brian Williams, Eleanor Gouws & Mark LurieMines, Migration and HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa, Lucia Corno and Damien De WalqueEconomic inequality and HIV in South Africa, Niclas NordforsTransactional sex and incident HIV infection in a cohort of young women from rural South Africa, Kilburn, Kelly
www.wealthofnationspodcast.com https://media.blubrry.com/wealthofnationspodcast/s/content.blubrry.com/wealthofnationspodcast/Dubai-Economy.mp3
submitted by gnikivar2 to globalistshills [link] [comments]


2020.04.28 06:13 gnikivar2 The Ghost of Pandemics Past: HIV in South Africa, Russia, and Uganda

The last global pandemic to terrify society was HIV/AIDS, a virus that has infected 75 million people and killed 32 million. HIV was a disease that in its early stages was easy to ignore because it was most often found in stigmatized groups of people such as sex workers, men who have sex with men, and injectible drug users. However, HIV has spread into much wider and today, nearly 1% of the world's population is HIV positive. In this podcast episode I will be exploring the factors that have exacerbated the spread of HIV. In part one, I will discuss the massive racial, economic, and gender inequalities that have exacerbated the HIV epidemic in South Africa. In part two, I will describe the role social stigma and discriminatory and cruel practices have led to the unchecked growth of HIV in South Africa. Finally, in part three, I will discuss how economic growth paradoxically led to the growth of HIV in Uganda.
South Africa today is the epicenter of the global HIV pandemic with over 12 million HIV positive people making up 20.8% of South Africa's total population. South Africa's HIV pandemic cannot be understood without first exploring the massive structural inequalities that have long defined South Africa. Apartheid's strict residency laws that forbid black families from permanently settling in cities, and the labor demands of South Africa's booming mining economy led to one member of 36% of households working as a migrant in the mines. Men largely lived in single sex labor barracks, where the use of sex workers unsurprisingly became common, creating an environment where STD could spread rapidly. Miners are six times more likely to have HIV than non-miners, and migration from neignoring southern African nations paying a key role in the growth of HIV throughout southern Africa. South Africa today has the highest gini coefficient, a standard measure of inequality, in the world with levels of HIV prevalence shaped by this inequality. For example, women who live in the most unequal decile of municipalities have positive HIV rates more than 4 times the least unequal decile. Massive economic inequality creates situations where desperately poor women have transactional sex with richer men for money. Finally, gender inequality has exacerbated the HIV crisis in South Africa. 17.41% of women in southern Africa face non-partner sexual violence, among the highest in the world placing women in situations where coercion and fear of force makes it difficult to say no to sex, or demand a condom. On top of these inequalities, was government incompetence in dealing with HIV. Thabo Mbeki, president of South Africa from 1999 to 2008, believed conspiracy theories that HIV was not the cause of AIDS, and refused to invest in life saving anti-retroviral treatments even when pharmaceutical companies gave medication free of cost even as neighboring countries scaled up their programs. The cost of inaction by Mbeki's government was the excess mortality of 365,000 deaths.
South Africa is hardly alone in denying the reality of HIV. Since the first to suffer from HIV are often men who have sex with men, sex workers and injectable drug users, societies ignore the dangers of HIV. Russia has approximately 1.8 million injectable drug users, originally the primary vector of transmission of HIV in Russia. Instead of following harm reduction policies the government has chosen to crack down on drug use. Approximately 200,000 drug users are in Russian prisons, methadone treatment is banned, and organizations that provide clean needles face continuous harassment. The Russian state today is closely allied with the Orthodox church which is fiercely opposed to any outreach to the gay community, and sex education has been severely curtailed. At the same time NGOs that provide information about HIV and access to testing and treatment have been hounded for having international ties, and LGBT employees. Russia has also made little effort to provide treatment to HIV positive people. Today, only 36% of Russians receive ARV treatment, one of the lowest rates in the world. Less than 20% of HIV positive drug users receive ARV treatment, and just 5% of HIV positive prisoners receive ARV treatment. In addition to saving lives, treatment for HIV reduces the viral load to the point that transmission of HIV is neglible. The lack of prevention or treatment in Russia has resulted in Russia having one of the fastest growing HIV outbreaks in the world. Today, approximately 1.3% of Russia is HIV positive, and the number of new infections in Russia is increasing by 10-15% a year. Moreover, the percent of HIV transmitted through heterosexual sex is steadily rising, putting more and more Russians, even Russians not seen as "deviant" at risk. Ironically, the Russian government has the capacity to be effective when it wants to be. For example, the Russian government has almost eliminated Mother to Child Transmission of HIV. It is possible HIV will grow to an uncontrollable point because the government was unwilling to act.
The growth of HIV can just as much be the result of policy success as policy failure. Yoweri Museveni, as I described in a previous podcast episode, restored economic growth to Uganda after decades of misrule by Idi Amin, and brutal civil war. Economic growth in Uganda was consistently above 6% a year in the 1980s and 1990s, international trade grew seven-fold between 1986 and 2000, and the population of Kampala increased five-fold during this same period. The result of this economic growth was large number of truck drivers carrying goods, and male migrants streaming into urban slums, both populations susceptible to contracting HIV. Research has found every doubling of exports results in a four-fold increase in HIV, with 30-60% of Uganda's growth in HIV explained by increased economic activity. Moreover, HIV rates are consistently between 25-32% for truckers, and HIV rates are higher along major transportation corridors. HIV rates are also higher in urban areas, and the more affluent southern provinces. HIV rapidly soared in Uganda, and by 1991 10.4% of Ugandan adults were HIV positive. However, economic growth and the growth in institutional capacity responsible for the economic growth allowed Uganda to successfully combat HIV. Government and civil society worked together to educate the public about the risks of HIV, and expand access to testing. Access to antiretroviral treatment was expanded and made free. These programs have successfully allowed to dramatically reduce the prevalence of HIV from 10.4% of the population to 5.7% of the population.
The explosion of HIV in South Africa, Russia and Uganda leave important warnings for out current fight against COVID-19. For example, systematic racial inequality has drastically increased mortality among black people in the United States. Assumptions about who could act as vectors for COVID-19 led to decisions made upon false assumption. Finally, COVID-19 has disproportionately hit the most vital nodes of the global economy. While there are important lessons to be learned from looking at the successes other nations have had at containing and reducing levels of HIV, which I will explore in the second part of this miniseries.
Selected Sources:Migration and health in Southern Africa: 100 years and still circulating, Mark N. Lurie a , and Brian G. WilliamsMigration and HIV/AIDS in South Africa, Jonathan Crush , Brian Williams, Eleanor Gouws & Mark LurieMines, Migration and HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa, Lucia Corno and Damien De WalqueEconomic inequality and HIV in South Africa, Niclas NordforsTransactional sex and incident HIV infection in a cohort of young women from rural South Africa, Kilburn, Kelly
www.wealthofnationspodcast.com https://media.blubrry.com/wealthofnationspodcast/s/content.blubrry.com/wealthofnationspodcast/Dubai-Economy.mp3
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2020.04.28 06:09 gnikivar2 The Ghost of Pandemics Past: HIV in South Africa, Russia, and Uganda

The last global pandemic to terrify society was HIV/AIDS, a virus that has infected 75 million people and killed 32 million. HIV was a disease that in its early stages was easy to ignore because it was most often found in stigmatized groups of people such as sex workers, men who have sex with men, and injectible drug users. However, HIV has spread into much wider and today, nearly 1% of the world's population is HIV positive. In this podcast episode I will be exploring the factors that have exacerbated the spread of HIV. In part one, I will discuss the massive racial, economic, and gender inequalities that have exacerbated the HIV epidemic in South Africa. In part two, I will describe the role social stigma and discriminatory and cruel practices have led to the unchecked growth of HIV in South Africa. Finally, in part three, I will discuss how economic growth paradoxically led to the growth of HIV in Uganda.
South Africa today is the epicenter of the global HIV pandemic with over 12 million HIV positive people making up 20.8% of South Africa's total population. South Africa's HIV pandemic cannot be understood without first exploring the massive structural inequalities that have long defined South Africa. Apartheid's strict residency laws that forbid black families from permanently settling in cities, and the labor demands of South Africa's booming mining economy led to one member of 36% of households working as a migrant in the mines. Men largely lived in single sex labor barracks, where the use of sex workers unsurprisingly became common, creating an environment where STD could spread rapidly. Miners are six times more likely to have HIV than non-miners, and migration from neignoring southern African nations paying a key role in the growth of HIV throughout southern Africa. South Africa today has the highest gini coefficient, a standard measure of inequality, in the world with levels of HIV prevalence shaped by this inequality. For example, women who live in the most unequal decile of municipalities have positive HIV rates more than 4 times the least unequal decile. Massive economic inequality creates situations where desperately poor women have transactional sex with richer men for money. Finally, gender inequality has exacerbated the HIV crisis in South Africa. 17.41% of women in southern Africa face non-partner sexual violence, among the highest in the world placing women in situations where coercion and fear of force makes it difficult to say no to sex, or demand a condom. On top of these inequalities, was government incompetence in dealing with HIV. Thabo Mbeki, president of South Africa from 1999 to 2008, believed conspiracy theories that HIV was not the cause of AIDS, and refused to invest in life saving anti-retroviral treatments even when pharmaceutical companies gave medication free of cost even as neighboring countries scaled up their programs. The cost of inaction by Mbeki's government was the excess mortality of 365,000 deaths.
South Africa is hardly alone in denying the reality of HIV. Since the first to suffer from HIV are often men who have sex with men, sex workers and injectable drug users, societies ignore the dangers of HIV. Russia has approximately 1.8 million injectable drug users, originally the primary vector of transmission of HIV in Russia. Instead of following harm reduction policies the government has chosen to crack down on drug use. Approximately 200,000 drug users are in Russian prisons, methadone treatment is banned, and organizations that provide clean needles face continuous harassment. The Russian state today is closely allied with the Orthodox church which is fiercely opposed to any outreach to the gay community, and sex education has been severely curtailed. At the same time NGOs that provide information about HIV and access to testing and treatment have been hounded for having international ties, and LGBT employees. Russia has also made little effort to provide treatment to HIV positive people. Today, only 36% of Russians receive ARV treatment, one of the lowest rates in the world. Less than 20% of HIV positive drug users receive ARV treatment, and just 5% of HIV positive prisoners receive ARV treatment. In addition to saving lives, treatment for HIV reduces the viral load to the point that transmission of HIV is neglible. The lack of prevention or treatment in Russia has resulted in Russia having one of the fastest growing HIV outbreaks in the world. Today, approximately 1.3% of Russia is HIV positive, and the number of new infections in Russia is increasing by 10-15% a year. Moreover, the percent of HIV transmitted through heterosexual sex is steadily rising, putting more and more Russians, even Russians not seen as "deviant" at risk. Ironically, the Russian government has the capacity to be effective when it wants to be. For example, the Russian government has almost eliminated Mother to Child Transmission of HIV. It is possible HIV will grow to an uncontrollable point because the government was unwilling to act.
The growth of HIV can just as much be the result of policy success as policy failure. Yoweri Museveni, as I described in a previous podcast episode, restored economic growth to Uganda after decades of misrule by Idi Amin, and brutal civil war. Economic growth in Uganda was consistently above 6% a year in the 1980s and 1990s, international trade grew seven-fold between 1986 and 2000, and the population of Kampala increased five-fold during this same period. The result of this economic growth was large number of truck drivers carrying goods, and male migrants streaming into urban slums, both populations susceptible to contracting HIV. Research has found every doubling of exports results in a four-fold increase in HIV, with 30-60% of Uganda's growth in HIV explained by increased economic activity. Moreover, HIV rates are consistently between 25-32% for truckers, and HIV rates are higher along major transportation corridors. HIV rates are also higher in urban areas, and the more affluent southern provinces. HIV rapidly soared in Uganda, and by 1991 10.4% of Ugandan adults were HIV positive. However, economic growth and the growth in institutional capacity responsible for the economic growth allowed Uganda to successfully combat HIV. Government and civil society worked together to educate the public about the risks of HIV, and expand access to testing. Access to antiretroviral treatment was expanded and made free. These programs have successfully allowed to dramatically reduce the prevalence of HIV from 10.4% of the population to 5.7% of the population.
The explosion of HIV in South Africa, Russia and Uganda leave important warnings for out current fight against COVID-19. For example, systematic racial inequality has drastically increased mortality among black people in the United States. Assumptions about who could act as vectors for COVID-19 led to decisions made upon false assumption. Finally, COVID-19 has disproportionately hit the most vital nodes of the global economy. While there are important lessons to be learned from looking at the successes other nations have had at containing and reducing levels of HIV, which I will explore in the second part of this miniseries.
Selected Sources:Migration and health in Southern Africa: 100 years and still circulating, Mark N. Lurie a , and Brian G. WilliamsMigration and HIV/AIDS in South Africa, Jonathan Crush , Brian Williams, Eleanor Gouws & Mark LurieMines, Migration and HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa, Lucia Corno and Damien De WalqueEconomic inequality and HIV in South Africa, Niclas NordforsTransactional sex and incident HIV infection in a cohort of young women from rural South Africa, Kilburn, Kelly
www.wealthofnationspodcast.com https://media.blubrry.com/wealthofnationspodcast/s/content.blubrry.com/wealthofnationspodcast/Dubai-Economy.mp3
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2019.09.15 18:40 Techgamingstudio Demonstrated or Purported Medical Benefits of Marijuana

Donald H. Marks M.D., Ph.D.
Wharton, New Jersey

What is medical marijuana?

The marijuana plant contains more than 100 cannabinoids, which is a general term for chemicals that may help treat a wide range of illnesses and symptoms. Cannabinoids are chemicals related to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana’s main mind-altering ingredient that makes people "high." There are at least two active chemicals in marijuana that researchers think have medicinal applications : cannabidiol (CBD), which has CNS pharmacologic properties excluding mood elevation “high”, and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is analgesic “pain relief” but can also produce the euphoric “high”.
Tetrahydrocannabinol THC, is one of at least 113 cannabinoid compounds identified in cannabis). THC is the principal psychoactive (acts directly on the brain) constituent of the cannabis plant product. The chemical name trans-Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol also can be used to refer to cannabinoid isomers (chemically and structurally similar compounds). Dronabinol, a synthetic form of THC approved by the FDA, is an appetite stimulant for people with AIDS and also an antiemetic, both are properties which can be helpful for people receiving chemotherapy. The pharmaceutical formulation dronabinol is an oily resin provided in capsules) available by prescription in the United States, and a growing list of other countries, including Canada, Germany, and New Zealand.
📷
C21H30O2s
Mass 314.47 g·mol
📷
Cannabinol, a dreivitie of THC, is a non-psychoactive (doesn’t act directly on the brain cells) cannabinoid found only in trace amounts in Cannabis. It is mostly found in aged Cannabis. Pharmacologically relevant (compunds that can have direct effect on the brain) quantities are formed as a metabolite of THC.
Formula: C21H26O2
Molar mass: 310.4319 g/mol
The term medical marijuana refers to using the whole, unprocessed marijuana plant or its basic extracts to treat symptoms of illness and other conditions.
Products Available
FDA-Approved
Scientific study of the chemicals in marijuana, called cannabinoids, has led to two FDA-approved medications that contain cannabinoid chemicals in pill form. Continued research may lead to more medications. Dronabinol is a synthetic form of THC approved by the FDA as an appetite stimulant for people with AIDS and antiemetic for people receiving chemotherapy. The pharmaceutical formulation dronabinol is an oily resin provided in capsules) available by prescription in the United States, Canada, Germany, and New Zealand.
Demonstrated or Purported medical benefits of Marijuana
Anti-emetic / anti-nausea such as Chemotherapy-induced nausea : CIN
An estimated 45 to 61% of patients with cancer will experience chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). This is caused by chemotherapeutic agents and/ or their metabolites activating neurotransmitter receptors in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract [e.g., 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3)] and in the brain [e.g., neurokinin-1 (NK-1)]. When CINV is managed according to published guidelines (such as Roila 2006), the incidence and severity is significantly reduced. In a literature review, Badowski 2017 found that oral cannabinoids have similar or improved efficacy compared with conventional antiemetics for the resolution of nausea and/or vomiting in patients with cancer, and presumably with lesser side effects and cost.
Synthetic pharmaceutical-grade THC (i.e., dronabinol capsules, nabilone capsules, and dronabinol oral solution) is approved in the United States for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy in patients who failed to adequately respond to conventional antiemetic therapy.
Synthetic pharmaceutical-grade THC (dronabinol capsules) is also approved for the treatment of anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with AIDS.
On the negative side, oral cannabinoids can be associated with greater incidence of certain adverse effects compared with conventional antiemetic therapy or placebo (e.g., dizziness, hypotension, and dysphoria or depression). This could be due to greater product variability, and active drug availability. Although used for CINV, cannabinoids may themselves cause nausea, a phenomenon termed Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome : CHS (Nourbakhsh 2018). CHS is characterized by cyclic attacks of nausea and vomiting in chronic cannabinoid users and learned behavior of compulsive hot bathing. Nourbakhsh described the deaths of two to CHS, and stressed the importance of recognizing CHS as a potential cause or contributing factor to death in cannabinoid users.
Chronic pain
Pain is classified into Neuropathic and Nociceptice pain. Neuropathic pain is caused by damage or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system. Neuropathic pain may be associated with abnormal sensations called dysesthesia or pain from normally non-painful stimuli (allodynia). Central neuropathic pain is found in spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and some strokes. Aside from diabetes and other metabolic conditions, the common causes of painful peripheral neuropathies are herpes zoster infection, HIV-related neuropathies, nutritional deficiencies, toxins, remote manifestations of malignancies, immune mediated disorders and physical trauma to a nerve trunk. Neuropathic pain is commonly seen in cancer as a direct result of cancer’s effect on peripheral nerves (e.g., compression by a tumor), or as a side effect of chemotherapy (chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy), radiation injury or surgery.
In contrast to neuropathic pain, Nociceptive pain is caused by damage to body tissue and is typically of a sharp, aching, or throbbing nature. This kind of pain can be due to benign pathology; or by tumors or cancer cells that are growing larger and crowding other body parts near the cancer site. Nociceptive pain may also be caused by cancer spreading to the bones, muscles, or joints, or that causes the blockage of an organ or blood vessels.
Häuser 2018 performed a literature review of treatment of chronic pain with cannibus. Out of the 748 papers identified, only 10 met the inclusion criteria chosen, so it was a highly refined and selective and partial report. Inconsistent findings were observed in 4/10 studies on the efficacy of cannabis-based medicines in neuropathic pain and of one study for painful spasms in multiple sclerosis. Insufficient evidence was found of any cannabis-based medicine for pain management in patients with rheumatic diseases and in cancer pain (as opposed to success for CINV). Similar results were obtained in a study by Mucke 2018 (which also included Häuser). Both the Mucke and the Häuser studies were systemic reviews of other studies, and not their own studies. Their lack of direct experience with clinical studies on this issue, and apparently their lack of contact with patients with chronic pain who have successfully treated their pain with marijuana, is surprising. I think that their inability to find supportive date within 748 published reports attests to their experimental design and conceptual bias rather than to a lack of data.
Shleider et al 2018 analyzed 2970 cancer patients treated with medical cannabis between 2015 and 2017. The average age was 59.5, 54.6% were women and 26.7% of the patients reported previous experience with cannabis. The most frequent types of cancer were: breast (20.7%), lung (13.6%), pancreatic (8.1%) and colorectal (7.9%) with 51.2% being at stage 4. The main symptoms requiring therapy were: sleep problems (78.4%), pain (77.7%, median intensity 8/10), weakness (72.7%), nausea (64.6%) and lack of appetite (48.9%). After six months of follow up, 902 patients (24.9%) died and 682 (18.8%) stopped the treatment. Of the remaining, 1211 (60.6%) responded; 95.9% reported an improvement in their condition, 45 patients (3.7%) reported no change and four patients (0.3%) reported deterioration in their medical condition. The researchers concluded that Cannabis as a palliative treatment for cancer patients seems to be well tolerated, effective and safe option to help patients cope with the malignancy related symptoms.
The THC in marijuana mechanism of actions appears to be binding to receptors in the nerves and muscles to relieve pain.
Muscle spasms related to multiple sclerosis.
Marijuana may ease painful symptoms of multiple sclerosis, according to a study published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal. Corey-Bloom et al 2012 performed a placebo-controlled, crossover trial involving 37 adult patients with multiple sclerosis and spasticity / painful muscle contractions, of whom 30/37 completed the study. These patients didn't respond to other treatments, but after smoking marijuana for a few days, they reported that they were in less pain. Smoked cannabis was superior to placebo in symptom and pain reduction in participants with treatment-resistant spasticity. Other types of muscle spasms may respond to marijuana as well, for example diaphragm spasms that are untreatable by other, prescribed medications.
Treatment for hepatitis C infection is often difficult to tolerate: negative side effects include fatigue, nausea, muscle aches, loss of appetite, and depression. Those side effects can last for months, and lead many people to stop their treatment course early. Liu 2014 did not find documentation of either benefit or harm from HCV users under treatment with marijuana. In contrast, Sylvestre et al 2006 found that 86% of patients using marijuana successfully completed their Hep C therapy. Only 29% of non-smokers completed their treatment, possibly because the marijuana helps lessen the treatment's side effects. Seventeen of the 71 study patients (24%) discontinued therapy early, one cannabis user (5%) and 16 non-users (33%). Overall, 37 patients (52%) were end-of-treatment responders, 14 (64%) cannabis users and 23 (47%) non-users. A total of 21 out of 71 (30%) had a sustained virological response: 12 of the 22 cannabis users (54%) and nine of the 49 non-users (18%) (P=0.009), corresponding to a post-treatment virological relapse rate of 14% in the cannabis users and 61% in the non-users (P=0.009). Overall, 48 (68%) were adherent, 29 (59%) non-users and 19 (86%) cannabis users (P=0.03). Although cannabis users were no more likely than non-users to take at least 80% of the prescribed interferon or ribavirin, they were significantly more likely to remain on HCV treatment for at least 80% of the projected treatment duration, 95 versus 67% (P=0.01). Sylvestre et al concluded that modest cannabis use may offer symptomatic and virological benefit to some patients undergoing HCV treatment by helping them maintain adherence to the challenging medication regimen. Marijuana also seems to improve the treatment's effectiveness: 54% of hep C patients smoking marijuana got their viral levels low and kept them low, in comparison to only 8% of nonsmokers.

● Decrease Prescription Opioid Problems

Medical marijuana legalization may (per the NIDA) decrease prescription opioid problems, as an indirect conclusion from several studies. Research published in the Harm Reduction Journal found that some people use marijuana as a less harmful substitute for alcohol, prescription drugs, and other illegal drugs. Some of the most common reasons patients make that substitution are that marijuana has less negative side effects and is less likely to cause withdrawal problems. Some people do become psychologically dependent on marijuana, and it is not a cure for substance abuse problems, but from a harm-reduction standpoint, it can help.

Several studies have showed that states that allow medical marijuana have fewer opioid deaths. This effect seems to grow over time, with states who pass these laws seeing a 20% lower rate of opioid deaths in the laws' first year, 24% in the third, and 33% in the sixth. (Bachhuber 2014) It's hard to say that deaths went down because of medical marijuana legalization and not other reasons. But because the effect seems to get stroznger the longer marijuana remains legal, researchers think marijuana is a likely cause of thzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzze decline in opioid deaths.
Anti-seizure
Some studies00379-8/abstract) have shown that CBD seems to help people with treatment-resistant epilepsy. A number of individuals have reported that marijuana is the only treatment that helps control their or their children's seizures. In one child, CBD decreased seizures from 300 to just one every seven days, and forty other children are also showing positive results. The treating physicians think that CBD interacts with brain cells to quiet the excessive activity in the brain that causes these seizures. Regardless, a Florida hospital that specializes in the disorder, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the Drug Enforcement agency don't endorse marijuana as a treatment for Dravet or other seizure disorders.
Hausman-Kedem 2018 conducted an observational study on the efficacy of medical cannabis for the treatment of refractory epilepsy. Fifty-seven patients (age 1-20 years) with epilepsy of various etiologies were treated with Cannabis oil extract (CBD/THC ratio of 20:1) for at least 3 months (Median follow up time-18 months). Forty-Six Patients were included in the efficacy analysis. Average CBD dose was11.4 mg/kg/d. Twenty-six patients (56%) had ≤50% reduction in mean monthly seizure frequency. There was no statistically significant difference in response rate among various epilepsy etiologies, and cannabis strain used. Younger age at treatment onset (<10 years) and higher CBD dose (>11 mg/kg/d) were associated with better response to treatment. Adverse reactions were reported in 46% of patients and were the main reason for treatment cessation. The study concluded that adding CBD-enriched cannabis extract to the treatment regimen of patients with refractory epilepsy may result in a significant reduction in seizure frequency, according to parental reports.
● Complex motor disorder CMD is a combination of various types of abnormal movements that are associated with impaired quality of life (QOL). Current therapeutic options are limited. Lizbon 2018 studied the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of medical cannabis in children with CMD. Two products of cannabidiol (CBD) enriched 5% oil formulation of cannabis were compared: one with 0.25% δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) 20:1 group, the other with 0.83% THC 6:1 group. Patients aged 1 to 17 years (n = 25) with CMD were enrolled. The assigned medication was administered for 5 months. Significant improvement in spasticity and dystonia, sleep difficulties, pain severity, and QOL was observed in the total study cohort, regardless of treatment assignment. Adverse effects were rare and included worsening of seizures in 2 patients, behavioral changes in 2 and somnolence in 1.
Decreased intraocular pressure IOC
One of the most common reasons that states allow medical marijuana use is to treat and prevent the eye disease glaucoma, which increases pressure in the eyeball, damaging the optic nerve and causing loss of vision. Marijuana decreases the pressure inside the eye, according to the National Eye Institute: "Studies in the early 1970s showed that marijuana, when smoked, lowered intraocular pressure (IOP) in people with normal pressure and those with glaucoma."
For now, the medical consensus is that marijuana only lowers IOP for a few hours, meaning there's not good evidence for it as a long term treatment. Researchers hope that perhaps a marijuana-based compound could be developed that lasts longer.
Anxiety
Researchers know that many cannabis users consume marijuana to relax, but also that many people say smoking too much can cause anxiety. Childs et al 2017 reported that THC at low doses reduced stress, while higher doses had the opposite effect.
· Increased Lung Capacity
Ribeiro 2016 found that not only does marijuana not impair lung function, it may even increase lung capacity. Pletcher et al, looking for risk factors of heart disease tested the lung function of 5,115 young adults over the course of 20 years found that tobacco smokers lost lung function over time, but pot users actually showed an increase in lung capacity.
Anti-cancer effects
Chakravarti 2014note that cannabinoids regulate key cell signaling pathways that are involved in cell survival, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, etc. Most studies address CB1 and CB2, the two cannabinoid receptors which are activated by most of the cannabinoids. They reviewed anti-cancer studies on several cannabinoids, their receptor dependent and receptor independent functional roles against various cancer types with respect to growth, metastasis, energy metabolism, immune environment, stemness and future perspectives in exploring new possible therapeutic opportunities.
CBD can stop cancer from spreading, at least in cell cultures (Sumida). There is evidence that CBD can turn off the ID-1gene, which is the gene that causes cancer to spread. At that point, the cells stopped spreading and returned to normal. Gurley 2014 marijuana can significantly slow the growth of the type of brain tumor associated with 80% of malignant brain cancer in people.
THC may slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease.
Eubanks 2006 found that Marijuana may be able to slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease. THC slows the formation of amyloid plaques by blocking the enzyme in the brain that makes them. These plaques kill brain cells and are associated with Alzheimer's.
A synthetic mixture of CBD and THC seems to preserve memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Another study suggested that a THC-based prescription drug called dronabinol was able to reduce behavioral disturbances in dementia patients. All these studies are in very early stages, though, so more research is needed.

Movement Disorders
As pointed out by Müller-Vahl 1999, most hyperkinetic and hypokinetic movement disorders are caused by a dysfunction of basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. It has been suggested that an endogenous cannabinoid tone participates in the control of movements and, therefore, the central cannabinoid system might play a role in the pathophysiology of these diseases. During the last years in humans a limited number of clinical trials demonstrated that cannabinoids might be useful in the treatment of movement disorders. Despite the lack of controlled studies there is evidence that cannabinoids are of therapeutic value in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome, the reduction of levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson''s disease and some forms of tremor and dystonia. It can be speculated that cannabinoid antagonists might be useful in the treatment of chorea in Huntington''s disease and hypokinetic parkinsonian syndromes.
As discussed by Müller-Vahi, Central cannabinoid receptors are densely located in the output nuclei of the basal ganglia (globus pallidus, substantia nigra pars reticulata), suggesting their involvement in the regulation of motor activity. Furthermore, there is evidence that endogenous cannabinoid transmission plays a role in the manipulation of other transmitter systems within the basal ganglia by increasing GABAergic transmission, inhibiting glutamate release and affecting dopaminergic uptake.
References
Badowski ME. A review of oral cannabinoids and medical marijuana for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a focus on pharmacokinetic variability and pharmacodynamics. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2017; 80(3): 441–449.
Bachhuber MA, Saloner B, Cunningham CO et al. Cannnnabis Laws and Opioid Analgesic Overdose Mortality in the United States, 1999-2010. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(10):1668-1673.
Chakravarti B, Ravi J, and Ganju RK. Cannabinoids as therapeutic agents in cancer: current status and future implications. Oncotarget. 2014 Aug; 5(15): 5852–5872.
Childs E, Lutz JA, de Wit H. Dose-related effects of delta-9-THC on emotional responses to acute psychosocial stress. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2017;
Corey-Bloom J, Wolfson T, Gamst A et al. Smoked cannabis for spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. CMAJ May 14, 2012
Eubanks LM, Rogers CJ, Beuscher AE, IV et al A Molecular Link Between the Active Component of Marijuana and Alzheimer's Disease Pathology. Mol Pharm. 2006; 3(6): 773–777.
Gurley SN, Abidi AH, Allison P et al. 2nd mechanism of anti-glioma activity and in vivo efficacy of the cannabinoid ligand KM-233. J Neurooncol. 2012;110(2):163–177.
Häuser W, Petzke F, and Fitzcharles M. (2018), Efficacy, tolerability and safety of cannabis-based medicines for chronic pain management – An overview of systematic reviews. Eur J Pain, 22: 455-470.
Hausman-Kedem M, Menascu S, Kramer U. Efficacy of CBD-enriched medical cannabis for treatment of refractory epilepsy in children and adolescents - An observational, longitudinal study. Brain Dev. 2018 Apr 16.
Liu T, Howell GT, Turner L et al. Marijuana use in hepatitis C infection does not affect liver biopsy histology or treatment outcomes. Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2014;28(7):381-384
Libzon S, Schleider LB, Saban N et al. Medical Cannabis for Pediatric Moderate to Severe Complex Motor Disorders. J Child Neurol. 2018 Jan 1:
Mücke M, Phillips T, Radbruch L et al. Cannabis-based medicines for chronic neuropathic pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Mar 7;3:

Müller-Vahl KR, Kolbe H, Schneider U. · Emrich H.M. Cannabis in Movement Disorders. Forsch Komplementärmed 1999;6:023–027

National Eye Institute https://nei.nih.gov/news/statements/marij
Nourbakhsh M, Miller A, Gofton J et al. Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome: Reports of Fatal Cases. J Forensic Sci. 2018 May 16.
Pletcher, M. J. et al. Association between marijuana exposure and pulmonary function over 20 years. JAMA 307, 173–181 (2012).
Ribeiro LIG and Ind PW. Effect of cannabis smoking on lung function and respiratory symptoms: a structured literature review. NPJ Prim Care Respir Med. 2016; 26: 16071.
Roila F, Hesketh PJ, Herrstedt J (2006) Prevention of chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced emesis: results of the 2004 Perugia International Antiemetic Consensus Conference. Ann Oncol 17(1):20–28
Shleider LB et al . Prospective analysis of safety and efficacy of medical cannabis in large unselected population of patients with cancer, Euro J Int Med March 2018X0003-X)Volume 49, Pages 37–43
Sumida T, Murase R, Onishi-Ishikawa A, McAllister SD, Hamakawa H, Desprez PY. Targeting Id1 reduces proliferation and invasion in aggressive human salivary gland cancer cells. BMC Cancer. 2013 Mar 22;13:141.
Sylvestre, DL Clements, BJ; Malibu, Y. Cannabis use improves retention and virological outcomes in patients treated for hepatitis C. European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology: October 2006 - Volume 18 - Issue 10 - p 1057-1063
Vadivelu N, Kai AM, Kodumudi G et al. Medical Marijuana: Current Concepts, Pharmacological Actions of Cannabinoid Receptor Mediated Activation, and Societal Implications. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2018 Jan 18;22(1):3.
Ware MA, Gamsa A, Persson J et al. Cannabis for chronic pain: case series and implications for clinicians. Pain Res Manag. 2002 Summer;7(2):95-9.
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2019.09.08 00:52 essidus A thousand words wasn't enough? Here's five thousand.

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believe believed believes belize belkin bell belle belly belong belongs below belt belts ben bench benchmark bend beneath beneficial benefit benefits benjamin bennett bent benz berkeley berlin bermuda bernard berry beside besides best bestiality bestsellers bet beta beth better betting betty between beverage beverages beverly beyond bg bhutan bi bias bible biblical bibliographic bibliography bicycle bid bidder bidding bids big bigger biggest bike bikes bikini bill billing billion bills billy bin binary bind binding bingo bio biodiversity biographies biography biol biological biology bios biotechnology bird birds birmingham birth birthday bishop bit bitch bite bits biz bizarre bizrate bk bl black blackberry blackjack blacks blade blades blah blair blake blame blank blanket blast bleeding blend bless blessed blind blink block blocked blocking blocks blog blogger bloggers blogging blogs blond blonde blood bloody bloom bloomberg blow blowing blowjob blowjobs blue blues bluetooth blvd bm bmw bo board boards boat boating boats bob bobby boc bodies body bold bolivia bolt bomb bon bond bondage bonds bone bones bonus boob boobs book booking bookings bookmark bookmarks books bookstore bool boolean boom boost boot booth boots booty border borders bored boring born borough bosnia boss boston both bother botswana bottle bottles bottom bought boulder boulevard bound boundaries boundary bouquet boutique bow bowl bowling box boxed boxes boxing boy boys bp br bra bracelet bracelets bracket brad bradford bradley brain brake brakes branch branches brand brandon brands bras brass brave brazil brazilian breach bread break breakdown breakfast breaking breaks breast breasts breath breathing breed breeding breeds brian brick bridal bride bridge bridges brief briefing briefly briefs bright brighton brilliant bring bringing brings brisbane bristol britain britannica british britney broad broadband broadcast broadcasting broader broadway brochure brochures broke broken broker brokers bronze brook brooklyn brooks brother brothers brought brown browse browser browsers browsing bruce brunei brunette brunswick brush brussels brutal bryan bryant bs bt bubble buck bucks budapest buddy budget budgets buf buffalo buffer bufing bug bugs build builder builders building buildings builds built bukkake bulgaria bulgarian bulk bull bullet bulletin bumper bunch bundle bunny burden bureau buried burke burlington burn burner burning burns burst burton bus buses bush business businesses busty busy but butler butt butter butterfly button buttons butts buy buyer buyers buying buys buzz bw by bye byte bytes c ca cab cabin cabinet cabinets cable cables cache cached cad cadillac cafe cage cake cakes cal calcium calculate calculated calculation calculations calculator calculators calendar calendars calgary calibration california call called calling calls calm calvin cam cambodia cambridge camcorder camcorders came camel camera cameras cameron cameroon camp campaign campaigns campbell camping camps campus cams can canada canadian canal canberra cancel cancellation cancelled cancer candidate candidates candle candles candy cannon canon cant canvas canyon cap capabilities capability capable capacity cape capital capitol caps captain capture captured car carb carbon card cardiac cardiff cardiovascular cards care career careers careful carefully carey cargo caribbean caring carl carlo carlos carmen carnival carol carolina caroline carpet carried carrier carriers carries carroll carry carrying cars cart carter cartoon cartoons cartridge cartridges cas casa case cases casey cash cashiers casino casinos casio cassette cast casting castle casual cat catalog catalogs catalogue catalyst catch categories category catering cathedral catherine catholic cats cattle caught cause caused causes causing caution cave cayman cb cbs cc ccd cd cdna cds cdt ce cedar ceiling celebrate celebration celebrities celebrity celebs cell cells cellular celtic cement cemetery census cent center centered centers central centre centres cents centuries century ceo ceramic ceremony certain certainly certificate certificates certification certified cet cf cfr cg cgi ch chad chain chains chair chairman chairs challenge challenged challenges challenging chamber chambers champagne champion champions championship championships chan chance chancellor chances change changed changelog changes changing channel channels chaos chapel chapter chapters char character characteristic characteristics characterization characterized characters charge charged charger chargers charges charging charitable charity charles charleston charlie charlotte charm charming charms chart charter charts chase chassis chat cheap cheaper cheapest cheat cheats check checked checking checklist checkout checks cheers cheese chef chelsea chem chemical chemicals chemistry chen cheque cherry chess chest chester chevrolet chevy chi chicago chick chicken chicks chief child childhood children childrens chile china chinese chip chips cho chocolate choice choices choir cholesterol choose choosing chorus chose chosen chris christ christian christianity christians christina christine christmas christopher chrome chronic chronicle chronicles chrysler chubby chuck church churches ci cia cialis ciao cigarette cigarettes cincinnati cindy cinema cingular cio cir circle circles circuit circuits circular circulation circumstances circus cisco citation citations cite cited cities citizen citizens citizenship city citysearch civic civil civilian civilization cj cl claim claimed claims claire clan clara clarity clark clarke class classes classic classical classics classification classified classifieds classroom clause clay clean cleaner cleaners cleaning cleanup clear clearance cleared clearing clearly clerk cleveland click clicking clicks client clients cliff climate climb climbing clinic clinical clinics clinton clip clips clock clocks clone close closed closely closer closes closest closing closure cloth clothes clothing cloud clouds cloudy club clubs cluster clusters cm cms cn cnet cnn co coach coaches coaching coal coalition coast coastal coat coated coating cock cocks cocktail cod code codes coding coffee cognitive cohen coin coins col cold cole coleman colin collaboration collaborative collapse collar colleague colleagues collect collectables collected collectible collectibles collecting collection collections collective collector collectors college colleges collins cologne colombia colon colonial colony color colorado colored colors colour colours columbia columbus column columnists columns com combat combination combinations combine combined combines combining combo come comedy comes comfort comfortable comic comics coming comm command commander commands comment commentary commented comments commerce commercial commission commissioner commissioners commissions commit commitment commitments committed committee committees commodities commodity common commonly commons commonwealth communicate communication communications communist communities community comp compact companies companion company compaq comparable comparative compare compared comparing comparison comparisons compatibility compatible compensation compete competent competing competition competitions competitive competitors compilation compile compiled compiler complaint complaints complement complete completed completely completing completion complex complexity compliance compliant complicated complications complimentary comply component components composed composer composite composition compound compounds comprehensive compressed compression compromise computation computational compute computed computer computers computing con concentrate concentration concentrations concept concepts conceptual concern concerned concerning concerns concert concerts conclude concluded conclusion conclusions concord concrete condition conditional conditioning conditions condo condos conduct conducted conducting conf conference conferences conferencing confidence confident confidential confidentiality config configuration configurations configure configured configuring confirm confirmation confirmed conflict conflicts confused confusion congo congratulations congress congressional conjunction connect connected connecticut connecting connection connections connectivity connector connectors cons conscious consciousness consecutive consensus consent consequence consequences consequently conservation conservative consider considerable consideration considerations considered considering considers consist consistency consistent consistently consisting consists console consoles consolidated consolidation consortium conspiracy const constant constantly constitute constitutes constitution constitutional constraint constraints construct constructed construction consult consultancy consultant consultants consultation consulting consumer consumers consumption contact contacted contacting contacts contain contained container containers containing contains contamination contemporary content contents contest contests context continent continental continually continue continued continues continuing continuity continuous continuously contract contracting contractor contractors contracts contrary contrast contribute contributed contributing contribution contributions contributor contributors control controlled controller controllers controlling controls controversial controversy convenience convenient convention conventional conventions convergence conversation conversations conversion convert converted converter convertible convicted conviction convinced cook cookbook cooked cookie cookies cooking cool cooler cooling cooper cooperation cooperative coordinate coordinated coordinates coordination coordinator cop cope copied copies copper copy copying copyright copyrighted copyrights coral cord cordless core cork corn cornell corner corners cornwall corp corporate corporation corporations corps corpus correct corrected correction corrections correctly correlation correspondence corresponding corruption cos cosmetic cosmetics cost costa costs costume costumes cottage cottages cotton could council councils counsel counseling count counted counter counters counties counting countries country counts county couple coupled couples coupon coupons courage courier course courses court courtesy courts cove cover coverage covered covering covers cow cowboy cox cp cpu cr crack cradle craft crafts craig crap craps crash crawford crazy cream create created creates creating creation creations creative creativity creator creature creatures credit credits creek crest crew cricket crime crimes criminal crisis criteria criterion critical criticism critics crm croatia crop crops cross crossing crossword crowd crown crucial crude cruise cruises cruz cry crystal cs css cst ct ctrl cu cuba cube cubic cuisine cult cultural culture cultures cum cumshot cumshots cumulative cunt cup cups cure curious currencies currency current currently curriculum cursor curtis curve curves custody custom customer customers customise customize customized customs cut cute cuts cutting cv cvs cw cyber cycle cycles cycling cylinder cyprus cz czech d da dad daddy daily dairy daisy dakota dale dallas dam damage damaged damages dame damn dan dana dance dancing danger dangerous daniel danish danny dans dare dark darkness darwin das dash dat data database databases date dated dates dating daughter daughters dave david davidson davis dawn day days dayton db dc dd ddr de dead deadline deadly deaf deal dealer dealers dealing deals dealt dealtime dean dear death deaths debate debian deborah debt debug debut dec decade decades december decent decide decided decimal decision decisions deck declaration declare declared decline declined decor decorating decorative decrease decreased dedicated dee deemed deep deeper deeply deer def default defeat defects defence defend defendant defense defensive deferred deficit define defined defines defining definitely definition definitions degree degrees del delaware delay delayed delays delegation delete deleted delhi delicious delight deliver delivered delivering delivers delivery dell delta deluxe dem demand demanding demands demo democracy democrat democratic democrats demographic demonstrate demonstrated demonstrates demonstration den denial denied denmark dennis dense density dental dentists denver deny department departmental departments departure depend dependence dependent depending depends deployment deposit deposits depot depression dept depth deputy der derby derek derived des descending describe described describes describing description descriptions desert deserve design designated designation designed designer designers designing designs desirable desire desired desk desktop desktops desperate despite destination destinations destiny destroy destroyed destruction detail detailed details detect detected detection detective detector determination determine determined determines determining detroit deutsch deutsche deutschland dev devel develop developed developer developers developing development developmental developments develops deviant deviation device devices devil devon devoted df dg dh di diabetes diagnosis diagnostic diagram dial dialog dialogue diameter diamond diamonds diana diane diary dice dick dicke dicks dictionaries dictionary did die died diego dies diesel diet dietary diff differ difference differences different differential differently difficult difficulties difficulty diffs dig digest digit digital dildo dildos dim dimension dimensional dimensions dining dinner dip diploma dir direct directed direction directions directive directly director directories directors directory dirt dirty dis disabilities disability disable disabled disagree disappointed disaster disc discharge disciplinary discipline disciplines disclaimer disclaimers disclose disclosure disco discount discounted discounts discover discovered discovery discrete discretion discrimination discs discuss discussed discusses discussing discussion discussions disease diseases dish dishes disk disks disney disorder disorders dispatch dispatched display displayed displaying displays disposal disposition dispute disputes dist distance distances distant distinct distinction distinguished distribute distributed distribution distributions distributor distributors district districts disturbed div dive diverse diversity divide divided dividend divine diving division divisions divorce divx diy dj dk dl dm dna dns do doc dock docs doctor doctors doctrine document documentary documentation documented documents dod dodge doe does dog dogs doing doll dollar dollars dolls dom domain domains dome domestic dominant dominican don donald donate donated donation donations done donna donor donors dont doom door doors dos dosage dose dot double doubt doug douglas dover dow down download downloadable downloaded downloading downloads downtown dozen dozens dp dpi dr draft drag dragon drain drainage drama dramatic dramatically draw drawing drawings drawn draws dream dreams dress dressed dresses dressing drew dried drill drilling drink drinking drinks drive driven driver drivers drives driving drop dropped drops drove drug drugs drum drums drunk dry dryer ds dsc dsl dt dts du dual dubai dublin duck dude due dui duke dumb dump duncan duo duplicate durable duration durham during dust dutch duties duty dv dvd dvds dx dying dylan dynamic dynamics e ea each eagle eagles ear earl earlier earliest early earn earned earning earnings earrings ears earth earthquake ease easier easily east easter eastern easy eat eating eau ebay ebony ebook ebooks ec echo eclipse eco ecological ecology ecommerce economic economics economies economy ecuador ed eddie eden edgar edge edges edinburgh edit edited editing edition editions editor editorial editorials editors edmonton eds edt educated education educational educators edward edwards ee ef effect effective effectively effectiveness effects efficiency efficient efficiently effort efforts eg egg eggs egypt egyptian eh eight either ejaculation el elder elderly elect elected election elections electoral electric electrical electricity electro electron electronic electronics elegant element elementary elements elephant elevation eleven eligibility eligible eliminate elimination elite elizabeth ellen elliott ellis else elsewhere elvis em emacs email emails embassy embedded emerald emergency emerging emily eminem emirates emission emissions emma emotional emotions emperor emphasis empire empirical employ employed employee employees employer employers employment empty en enable enabled enables enabling enb enclosed enclosure encoding encounter encountered encourage encouraged encourages encouraging encryption encyclopedia end endangered ended endif ending endless endorsed endorsement ends enemies enemy energy enforcement eng engage engaged engagement engaging engine engineer engineering engineers engines england english enhance enhanced enhancement enhancements enhancing enjoy enjoyed enjoying enlarge enlargement enormous enough enquiries enquiry enrolled enrollment ensemble ensure ensures ensuring ent enter entered entering enterprise enterprises enters entertaining entertainment entire entirely entities entitled entity entrance entrepreneur entrepreneurs entries entry envelope environment environmental environments enzyme eos ep epa epic epinions episode episodes epson eq equal equality equally equation equations equilibrium equipment equipped equity equivalent er era eric ericsson erik erotic erotica erp error errors es escape escort escorts especially espn essay essays essence essential essentially essentials essex est establish established establishing establishment estate estates estimate estimated estimates estimation estonia et etc eternal ethernet ethical ethics ethiopia ethnic eu eugene eur euro europe european euros ev eva eval evaluate evaluated evaluating evaluation evaluations evanescence evans eve even evening event events eventually ever every everybody everyday everyone everything everywhere evidence evident evil evolution ex exact exactly exam examination examinations examine examined examines examining example examples exams exceed excel excellence excellent except exception exceptional exceptions excerpt excess excessive exchange exchanges excited excitement exciting exclude excluded excluding exclusion exclusive exclusively excuse exec execute executed execution executive executives exempt exemption exercise exercises exhaust exhibit exhibition exhibitions exhibits exist existed existence existing exists exit exotic exp expand expanded expanding expansion expansys expect expectations expected expects expedia expenditure expenditures expense expenses expensive experience experienced experiences experiencing experiment experimental experiments expert expertise experts expiration expired expires explain explained explaining explains explanation explicit explicitly exploration explore explorer exploring explosion expo export exports exposed exposure express expressed expression expressions ext extend extended extending extends extension extensions extensive extent exterior external extra extract extraction extraordinary extras extreme extremely eye eyed eyes ez f fa fabric fabrics fabulous face faced faces facial facilitate facilities facility facing fact factor factors factory facts faculty fail failed failing fails failure failures fair fairfield fairly fairy faith fake fall fallen falling falls fame familiar families family famous fan fancy fans fantastic fantasy faq faqs far fare fares farm farmer farmers farming farms fascinating fashion fast faster fastest fat fatal fate father fathers fatty fault favor favorite favorites favors favour favourite favourites fax fbi fc fcc fd fda fe fear fears feat feature featured features featuring feb february fed federal federation fee feed feedback feeding feeds feel feeling feelings feels fees feet fell fellow fellowship felt female females fence feof ferrari ferry festival festivals fetish fever few fewer ff fg fi fiber fibre fiction field fields fifteen fifth fifty fig fight fighter fighters fighting figure figured figures fiji file filed filename files filing fill filled filling film filme films filter filtering filters fin final finally finals finance finances financial financing find findarticles finder finding findings findlaw finds fine finest finger fingering fingers finish finished finishing finite finland finnish fioricet fire fired firefox fireplace fires firewall firewire firm firms firmware first fiscal fish fisher fisheries fishing fist fisting fit fitness fits fitted fitting five fix fixed fixes fixtures fl flag flags flame flash flashers flashing flat flavor fleece fleet flesh flex flexibility flexible flickr flight flights flip float floating flood floor flooring floors floppy floral florence florida 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ground grounds groundwater group groups grove grow growing grown grows growth gs gsm gst gt gtk guam guarantee guaranteed guarantees guard guardian guards guatemala guess guest guestbook guests gui guidance guide guided guidelines guides guild guilty guinea guitar guitars gulf gun guns guru guy guyana guys gym gzip h ha habitat habits hack hacker had hair hairy haiti half halifax hall halloween halo ham hamburg hamilton hammer hampshire hampton hand handbags handbook handed handheld handhelds handjob handjobs handle handled handles handling handmade hands handy hang hanging hans hansen happen happened happening happens happiness happy harassment harbor harbour hard hardcore hardcover harder hardly hardware hardwood harley harm harmful harmony harold harper harris harrison harry hart hartford harvard harvest harvey has hash hat hate hats have haven having hawaii hawaiian hawk hay hayes hazard hazardous hazards hb hc hd hdtv he head headed header headers heading headline headlines 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2018.12.06 08:09 iminterestingplease Part 40

6512.(Music Lyrics change.)"Then I can do it."/"Then I can be it."("Both night and day."/"Every night and day.")(Other lyrics?)(Do any of his logos look off?)(A blob that defies many types of logic.)(Grinch Christmas trees now exist.)(The Arrival/Arrival movie.)(Does Tina Turner sound different?)(Wake Up Sleepy Jean/Cheer Up Sleepy Jean)(Jane Austin/Jane Austen)(Lots of space expedition changes.)(Santa Claus Is Coming To Town/Santa Claus Is Comin' To Town)(Lyrics and movie too.)(Bobby Brown is now alive.)(The Night Before Christmas/Twas The Night Before Christmas book title.)(Anything else off about the title or the words in the book?)(Is the musical group now the Carpenters'?)(Anything else off?)(O Holy Night/Oh Holy Night)(Any other titles off?)(O Little Town Of Bethlehem(Bethleham?)/Oh Little Town Of Bethlehem)(Any other titles off?)(Are potato bugs new or off to you?)(1890's photo of surfers in Hawaii.)(The History Channel/History)(Video below.)(Emerald City/City Of Emeralds and Dorothy's slippers are silver in the book.)(Changes to Jaws book.)(Lots of other changes from the livestream.)(The whole process of bears being friendlier and being able to domesticate them.)(Babcock Furniture/Badcock Furniture)(Nestlé Splash Mixed Berry/Nestlé Splash Wild Berry)(Matt Stone and Trey Parker cross dressed while on acid at an awards ceremony.)(Sylvia Rivera apparently died February 19, 2002 instead of still being alive.)(Didn't Vladimir Putin speak English all the time?)(Applebees/Applebee's Bar & Grill/Applebee's Grill & Bar)(Spunglass caterpillars now exist.)(Do number and letter fonts on certain sports fields look off?)(Small changes to how things are made.)(Mimas and Tethys had a Pac-Man heat signature.)(Soft moon landing on Titan in 2005.)(Airdree/Ardrie or Airdrieonians)(Betty Eggleton/Betty Eagleton)(Energizer bunny whiskers or not?)(Have any of the lyrics in Santa Claus Is Comin' To Town changed?)(Has the famous line in Hamlet changed?)(Any other versions off?)(Time travel in photos?)(White reindeer now exist.)(Flashlight fish now exist.)(Ladybugs coming out and leaving at different and weird times.)(Have you ever seen "Objects in mirror are losing." on car rearview mirrors before?)(Dee SnydeDee Snider)(Have the rules on getting paid and rules of taxes and similar things changed in certain situations for certain things.)(Star Wars: Last Jedi/Star Wars: The Last Jedi)("No crib for a bed."/"No crib for his bed.")(Other lyrics?)(Has Clara's crown from Doctor Who changed color?)(Pink rocks now exist.)(Albino ladybugs now exist.)(Mushroom that tastes like fried chicken.)(Have you heard of Green Monday?)(What color were Santa Claus' gloves for you?)(Do you remember Michael Douglas and Catherine Zeta-Jones getting a divorce?)(Steve Erwin/Steve Irwin)(Was Irwin never an acceptable spelling of Erwin?)("Let the good times roll."/"Let the good time roll.")(Were the lyrics the same as the title?)(Do any of their logos look off?)(Anything else off?)(Chubby Checkers/Chubby Checker)(Do any of his logos look off?)(Do any The Who logos look off?)(Do any of the lyrics in Rock The Casbah look off?)(Do any The Clash logos look off?)(Does anything having to do with mallard ducks flying and going certain places at certain times seem off?)(Weird huge spider found in backyard.)(Do you remember Dick Clark dying in 2014 or 2015 instead of April 18, 2012?)(Steven Hawkings/Stephen Hawking)(Steven Cobert/Stephen Colbert)(Is the pronunciation off?)(Floyd KrameFloyd Cramer)(Dill Pickles/Dil Pickles)(Has the See's Candies logo changed?)(Pearls come in many shapes and sizes now.)(Ice that glows like an emerald.)(Pink crystals that are brighter than normal.)(V Day/V-J Day)(Anything else off?)(V Day/V-E Day)(Anything else off.)("In a while crocodile."/"After 'while crocodile.")(Any other lyrics off?)(Stop signs now have white outlines and are no longer fully red.)(Julius Caesar's death has now happened at a theater instead of the Senate.)(The Ellen DeGeneres Show/Ellen)(Golden brush tail posdum now exists.)(Famous 1972 plane crash happened because of terrorist bomb instead of lightning strike and opening line in Fatal Attraction changed from "Black dress" to "Black suit".)(Psych/Sike)(Are any of the lyrics in Winter Wonderland off?)(Was the song titled Walking In A Winter Wonderland?)(How old was King Tut when he died for you?)(Dodge Durrango/Dodge Durango)(AIDS/AYDS diet plan)(Anything else off?)(Rocking bathtubs were now a thing.)(The weapon in Clue is no longer a dagger but a knife.)(Cern no longer shut down from 2009-2012 and was actually running but shut down 2013-2015 instead of running at that time and has been running ever since and no longer shut down on October 12, 2018.)(Anything else off?)(The Schumann Resonance(Other spellings and have you heard of it?)no longer started increasing in 2012 and instead started to increase from 2015 to now.)(Higgs Boson(Other spellings or anything else off?)went from being discovered in 2016 to 2013 to 2012.)(Fiona Broome's Mandela Effect website has went from being launched in 2012 to 2009.)(Mars used to be dry and completely devoid of life and resources.)("We are the champions, my friend."/"We are the champions, my friends.")(Any other lyrics off?)(Bitis viper now exists.)(We used to extend our palms outward and upward during the Pledge Of Allegiance until 1942.)(Did the south pole not exist?)(Do you remember Sondra Locke(Sandra Lock and was Sondra never an acceptable spelling of Sandra?)dying years ago instead of November 3, 2018?)(Did Davy Crockett wear a coonskin cap?)(Elvis Erin Presley/Elvis Arin Presley/Elvis Aron Presley/Elvis Aaron Presley)(Mother Teresa now died in the 90's again.)(Did Elvis not have a middle name?)(More Back To The Future car changes.)(1930's parkour or does it go back farther?)(Chocolate shaped like your butt?)(Do you remember Scategories?)(Albino sea turtles are now a thing.)(Albino tarantulas are now a thing.)(Colored photo of boy with torn clothes from early 1900's.)(Anything else off?)("The moon is right."/"The mood is right.")(Wonderful Christmas Time/A Wonderful Christmastime)(Is the title in the process of changing?)(Fallout Boys/Fall Out Boy)(Do any of their logos look off?)(Contact/Contac cold medicine)(Do any of the logos look off?)(Markhor goats now exist.)(Hungry Like A Wolf/Hungry Like The Wolf)(Lyrics too.)(Do any of their logos look off?)(Duran, Duran/Duran Duran)(Was Johnny Depp ever in Duran Duran?)(Raccoon dogs now exist.)(1898 film of African Americans in love?)(Kim Reeves is now alive.)("I haven't eaten in days."/"I haven't eaten in a day.")(Anything else off?)(Other lyrics?)(Have you heard of people ever putting oranges in their stockings?)(Anything else off?)(Everything about Baby's dress in Dirty Dancing.)(Anything else off?)(Metropolitan Transit Authority/Metropolitan Transportation Authority)(Anything else off?)(Dumaurier cigarettes/DuMaurier Cigarettes/Du Maurier Cigarettes)(Anything else off?)(Daphne DumaurieDaphne DuMaurieDaphne duMaurieDaphne du Maurier)(Chili's Bar & Grill/Chili's Grill & Bar)(Milestones Bar & Grill/Milestones Grill & Bar)(Anything else off?)(Lots of "Bar & Grill" places changing to "Grill & Bar".)(Doorman/Dorman auto related company.)(Saint Mary Magdalene/Mary Magdalene)(Bob Sagat/Bob Saget)(Cecil B. DeVille/Cecil B. DeMille)("Glory streams from heaven afar."/"Glories stream from heaven afar.")(Any other lyrics off?)(Have you heard of John Rabe?)(John Hanson instated the official date of Thanksgiving apparently.)(Lots of "rap battles" throughout ancient history.)("The quicker thicker picker upper."/"The quicker picker upper.")(C-3PO now has many visible and colorful wires showing.)(Anything else off?)(Have any of the New York Yankees logos changed?)(Chicken nugget Christmas trees?)(8 legged scorpions?)(Anything else off?)(10 and 12 legged spiders?)(Anything else off?)(Refrence/Reference)(Prefrence/Preference)(Scott Harrison has changed appearance.)(The new story of the candy cane is apparently that it represents J for Jesus.)(Anything else off?)(Snoopy's doghouse is now blue in the Charlie Brown Christmas special.)(Lots of new bible changes.)(Run Run Rudolph/Run Rudolph Run)(DNL or upside down 7 Up(Anything else off?)was now a thing.)(Pikachu now has brown on his tail.)(Mad Dog 20/20/MD 20/20)(Anything else off?)(Did Tommy Hilfiger ever make any racist comments on Oprah Winfrey's show?)(Lots of weird stuff going on with the name of the ship in Gilligan's Island.)(1980's Atari touch tablet?)(Syd Barrett died July 7, 2006 instead of much earlier.)(Arctica went from no longer existing to existing way back in prehistoric times.)(Goats can climb pretty much everything now.)(Ice hummocks now exist.)(Your address is now located on the back of Priority Mail from USPS.)(Has the Universal Pictures intro sound changed?)(Was it only known as Universal Pictures?)(Mysterious glowing rocks in Lake Superior.)(I AM LAZLOW logo has changed.)(Twas The Night Before Christmas now has A Visit From St. Nicholas in the title.)("God help me mister."/"Lord help me mister.")(Illuminated tires that were a thing in the 1950's.)(Frog legged beetles now exist.)(Spider with skull pattern on back.)(Lots of new colored pigeons.)(Jolly Ranchers/Jolly Rancher)(Antarctica Blood Falls and other weird stuff about Antarctica.)(Lots of weird new rainbow geysers and other types and the rules of rainbows keep changing.)(Lots of connected and modernized logos recently.)(Rainbow and weird new colored trees and forests.)(Lots of more new rainbow stuff.)(Weird glowing dolphins.)(Jabuticabas now exists)(Atolls now exist.)(Weird underwater purple blob.)(Ice fog now exists.)("Only you can prevent forest fires."/"Only you can prevent wildfires.")(Vincent van Gogh now has 38 self portraits.)(A Great Wall in every country basically.)(Trees use fungi to warn of danger.)(Caracals now exist.)(More weird flowers with alien faces.)(Lots of weird glowing frogs.)(Chris Angel/Criss Angel)(Was Criss never an acceptable spelling of Chris?)(Bird that looks like a Muppet.)(Don King is now alive.)(All the different ways people remember Led Zeppelin.)(The House Of The Holy/Houses Of The Holy)(1800's colored cartoon and other TV related tech advancements.)(Anything off about Whoot, There It Is(Whoot or Whoop There It Is?)or Whoomp! (There It Is)(Whoop or Whoomp There It Is?)in any way at all?)(Anything else off?)(The last month or so of videos uploaded by Lone Eagle including "Earth resets", history changes, tech stuff, famous wonder and landmark changes, and geography changes.)(A rock that grows, moves, and breeds?)(Do you remember people like Damn Wide Neck not being able to exist?)(Outake/Outtake)(All the channels with the name Curiouser & Curiouser are off in some way.)(FalcoFalkor and what color was he?)(Black flamingos(Flamingoes?)now exist and flamingos seem to have darker feathers.)(Target is starting to get its negative spacescin letters filled in and they now have a lowercase letters logo and the letters are scrunched up.)(Do you remember just Payless?)(Do you remember just Nordstrom's, Nordstroms, or Nordstrom only?)(Did Mr. Clean have no earrings, two earrings, or one earring in the opposite ear?)(1980's portable TV watches?)(Anything else off?)(Brain keeps changing slightly.)(Frosty The Snowman now has a green top hat with a pink flower on it instead of just a black top hat.)("In that old top hat they found.")("In that old silk hat they found.")(Sega Activator was now a thing.)(Lots of Mars related stuff is constantly changing.)(Lots of Frosty The Snowman related stuff is constantly changing color.)(Oshin/Ocean)(Groshiry/Grocery)(Leaf sheep now exist.)(Logitech apparently changed their name to Logi in 2015 and their logo is off.)(Betazoids from Star Trek now have black eyes.)(Lots of microwave related stuff ahead of its time.)(The Lois Lane mind reading scene in Superman changing.)("Helps to make the season bright."/"Help to make the season bright.")(Do any of his logos look off?)("We're talking away."/"Talking away.")("I don't know what to say."/"I don't know what I'm to say.")("I'll say it anyways."/"I'll say it anyway.")(Aha/A-Ha/A-ha)(Other lyrics?)(Do any of their logos look off?)(Rodan now has horns.)(Toilet paper is more popularly known as "tissue paper" apparently.)(Toilet paper is officially supposed to be wrapped under on a holder.)(Coreless and holeless toilet paper exists apparently)(Colored toilet paper and tissues used to exist apparently.)(Cigarettes and many hardcore drugs were promoted with health benefits and as being good for your health in the early to mid 1900's.)(Coke used to have real cocaine and other stuff in it.)(Bucky's auto shop logos have all changed.)(Weird antelope with blue horns and other weird stuff.)(Pikas now exist.)(Very large stockings used to be a thing.)(Atlantic sea ravens now exist.)(Weird snail without a shell-like creature.)(Ribbon seals now exist.)(Velellas now exist.)(Sea slugs of all types now exist.)(Bubble coral shrimp now exist.)(Lots of rare weird insects.)(Are cats' eyes starting to turn round?)(Have any of the quotes from the "wise men" story changed?)(Lots of weird new sea creatures.)(August Rodan/Auguste Rodin)(Is the pronunciation off?)(Zhest/Zest)(Lots of weird animals.)(Lots of tech ahead of its time.)(Christmas used to be on the 26th of December.)(Did Bill Clinton serve his full term for you?)(Did Wonderful Christmastime by Paul McCartney come out of nowhere for you?)(BudweizeBudweiser)(Did Marv and the old gangster movie guy say "Snake" instead of "Snakes" in the one scene in Home Alone?)(Red Barron/Red Baron)(Has the spelling of Baron changed in general?)(Jack Dempsy/Jack Dempsey)(Cellphones in the early 1900's from Nikola Tesla?)(A rock that can't move?)(Donkeys have cross patterns on their backs.)(Do toilets spin in the opposite direction from which they did for you?)(Black apples?)(Merry Christmas (War Is Over)/Happy Xmas (War Is Over))(Anything else off?)(Hugh Grant's inconsistent ties in a movie.)(Razoo's/Razzoo's)(Anything else off?)(Lots of weird stuff about the back of the $2.00 bill and the painting it's based off.)(The weird blobs from Oakville, Washington in 1994.)(Philarmonic/Philharmonic)(Have you heard of Trump: The Game?)(Will Smith is now alive.)( P. Henson is now alive.)(Does Kitty's mole in That '70s Show look off?)(Transparent eels now exist.)(Another Laurel/Yanny situation with an Elmo toy and Grover in Sesame Street.)(Lots of train history has changed.)(Charles Martinet is now alive.)(Lots of lightning related changes.)(Amaco/Amoco)(The Last Action Hero/Last Action Hero)(Anything else off?)(Turner Movie Classics/Turner Classic Movies)(Anything else off?)(Weird missile related stuff.)(Jordan, Arizona/Jordin, Arizona)(Jordan Sparks/Jordin Sparks)(Was Jordin never an acceptable spelling of Jordan?)(Loki now pledges his "undying fidelity" in Avengers: Infinity War instead of his "undying fealty".)(Dory now has black marks on her face and reddish tinted eyes.)(Anything else off?)(Has Donald Duck said any racial slurs or cuss words in any cartoon or movie ever for you?)(Alons-y/Allons-y Doctor Who catchphrase.)(Crazy Horse Statue near Mount Rushmore now.)(LED light rims?)(Dirty Dancing golden shoes.)(Back To The Future window display stuff like costumes and is it off?)(Is Frosty The Snowman's nose different?)(Chip and Dale's nose and teeth changes?)(Brenda Lee says "Fucking" in Rockin' Around The Christmas Tree?)(Rocking Around The Christmas Tree?)(The Teletubbies F word controversy in the 90's.)(Anything else off?)(Dead leaf butterfly now exists.)(Trump Taj Mahal logo change.)(New York Life and Niagara water logos have changed.)(Anything else off?)(U.S. rainforests?)(The Scream face and eyes are less detailed?)(Macauly Caulkin/Macaulay Culkin)(Other spellings?)(Michael Jackson song where it sounds like he's mentioning butt wiping?)(Bobby Kennedy asking LBJ why he had his brother killed?)(Any other stuff off?)(Do you remember one earring in the left ear meaning one is gay and one in the right meaning one is straight?)(Anything else off?)(Doctor Who introduced a female doctor?)(The Minions almost all have hair now.)(Did only some or none have hair?)(Thrifty's/Thriftys/Thrifty)(Freddy Krueger now only has 4 claws on each hand instead of 5.)(Do you remember Snuffleupagus not being known as Mr. Snuffleupagus, Snuffs, Snuffy, or Aloysius?)("There ain't no rest for the wicked. Money don't grow on trees. I got bills to pay, I got mouths to feed, there ain't nothing in this world for free. Oh no I can't slow down, I can't hold back though you know I wish I could. Oh no there ain't no rest for the wicked. Until I close my eyes for good."/"You know there ain't no rest for the wicked. Money don't grow on trees. We got bills to pay, we got mouths to feed, there ain't nothing in this world for free. Oh no we can't slow down, we can't hold back though you know we wish we could. Oh no there ain't no rest for the wicked. Until we close our eyes for good.")(Anything about the release date, band, vocals, or instruments sound off?)(Woody Woodpecker pretends to blow brains out?)(Pinocchio "does drugs" on Pleasure Island?)(Anything else off about Pleasure Island?)(Bare naked woman in Where's Waldo book.)(Mummified dinosaurs?)(Mummy discovety changes everything.)(Has Pinocchio's outfit changed?)(All the backwards American flags everywhere.)(Did Erin Moran die way earlier or later than April 22, 2017?)(Wolverine from Marvel now only has 3 claws instead of 5.)(God Bless The Broken Road/Bless The Broken Road)(Anything else off?)(Did Wolverine have 4 claws?)(Do you remember New Years instead of NewcYear?)(Bj's Warehouse/Bj's Wholesale Club)(Is the logo off?)(Person depicted on bicycle-like vehicle in old carving.)(Girl with metal legs in early 1900's.)(Green dragontail butterfly now exists.)(Is Woody Woodpecker's eye color off in any way?)(Frilled dragons now exist.)(Louie Vitton/Louis Vuitton)(The Benefit Of Mr. Kite/Being For The Benefit Of Mr. Kite!)(Anything else off?)(Any lyrics off?)(The Skipper now wears a black shirt.)(Do you remember Richard Overton dying years ago instead of December 27, 2018?)(Martin Sheen has been replaced by Daryl Hannah on all movie covers for Wall Street from 1987.)(Have any X-Men movie covers changed?)(Advertize/Advertise)(Other spellings?)(Black tiger now exists.)(More mobile phones in the early 1900's.)(Car phones in the early to mid 1900's.)(Have any scenes in A Few Good Men changed?)(Did Jack Klugman die earlier or later than December 24, 2012?)(Christmas Tree /Christmas Tree Shops and is the logo off?)(Olympia vs. Olivia girl from Bird Box.)(Are any WarGames tones off in any way?)(Did Shirley Temple ever portray Annie ever?)(Do you remember Zero from The Nightmare Before Christmas having a red nose instead of a pumpkin one?)(The Beatles Sgt. Pepper album cover changing.)(Most fruit flavored things having the same flavor regardless of shape and color due to a smell trick.)(The letters are connected in the Monopoly cards and Mediterranean Avenue now takes up 3 lines instead of 2 and is the spelling of Mediterranean off?))(Anything else off?)(Do you remember Richard Simmons always wearing a headband instead of rarely if at all?)(Cane toads mating with a python?)(The Boiling River of the Amazon.)(Two-headed sharks?)(Loretta Lynn is now alive.)(Cocain/Cocaine)(Do you remember a Grinch movie coming about between 2012-2016?)(Lots of state Capitol buildings are starting to sprout statues.)(Camebridge, England/Cambridge, England)(University too.)(Giada Delaurentis/Giada DeLaurentis/Giada DeLaurentiis/Giada De Laurentiis)(Anything else off?)(What color was Richard Simmons' headband if he wore one for you?)(Pince Nez/Prince Nez)(Did Harry Houdini die from being buried alive or some other way that hasn't been mentioned yet?)(Definetely/Definetly/Definitely)(Other spellings that haven't been mentioned yet?)(The E.T. in the intro of the movie is a different plain purple font instead of being white and having weird ends like E.T.'s fingers and the credits are all purple instead of white.)(Anything else off?)(Did Richard Simmons wear arm bands and what color were they if he did?)(Multiple suns phenomenon.)(Did Airbnb, SpaceX, and other companies not exist?)(Was PayPal made by a different founder?)(The end of phone and related privacy ended in the 1940's?)(The cents sign now only has 1 line.)(Bob Ebstein/Bob Epstein/Bob Einstein)(Other spellings?)(Living black goo organism.)(Didn't Gene Okerlund die before January 2, 2019?)(Lots of other wrestlers dying twice or coming back to life.)(Metalica/Mettalica/Metallica)(Codine/Codeine)(Anything else off?)(1890's photocromes of Ireland.)(Joannie Loves Chachi/Joanie Loves Chachi)(Is the logo off?)(Robert Cornelius took first selfie in late 1800's.)(Lots of logo changes.)(Very dark apples now exist.)(Horse apples now exist.)(Many weird new trees that now exist.)(Leonel Messi/Lionel Messi)(Dark yower underwater.)(Silk The ShockeSilkk The Shocker and didn't he die?)(The intro to Holmes & Watson changed.)(Audrey Hepburn's nun outfit used to be all black or all white in The Nun's Story.)(Has the drum solo in Dave Brubeck's Take Five changed in any way?)(Lawrence Fishborn/Laurence Fishburne)(Other spellings?)(Middlesex Shopping CenteMiddlesex Plaza)(Elilly vs. Aurora sound illusion.)(Anything else off?)(Do any of the lyrics in Crazy by Gnarls Barkley sound off?)(Anything else off?)(Using snails for skin related treatment?)(Howard Johnson's/Howard Johnson)(Other names?)(Have the roof colors changed?)(Anything else off?)(Were the letters in Honeywell not connected?)("Should've had a V8."/"Could've had a V8.")(Other quotes?)(Anything else off?)(The Michelin man used to be a woman.)(Snow vultures now exist.)(Pagers being a thing in the 1920's.)(Xerox machine in the 1930's.)(Red lentils now exist.)(Anything else about lentils and lentil colors off?)(The first e-reader in the 1940's?)(CiCi's Pizza/Cicis)(Anything else about the name or logo off?)(1940's Vespa print art.)(1940's disposable camera.)(Hornman's/Hornimans)(Anything else off?)(Times newspaper companies now have unicorns in their logos.)(Lenny KillmeisteLemmy Kilmister)(Other spellings?)(Roller blades/Rollerblade)(Anything else off?)(Segway unicycles now exist.)(Coming To America angel wings?)(Polish frizzled bantam chickens now exist.)(1800's solar power?)(1800's full metal contact lenses?)(Virtual reality in the 1960's.)(Spotify letters are connected.)(Anything else off?)(UK cereal Honey Smacks is just Smacks.)(Are other cereal types off?)(Borobudur Temple in China.)(MN21/NM21/MN21 and other batteries and did they not exist?)(Michael Jackson like Egyptian pharaoh statues?)(Other old paintings and pictures of people from the past that look like modern celebrities.)(Eddie VedeEddie Vedder)(Lots of new battles and wars.)(Captain Britain now exists.)(The Beatles didn't write any of their own music or at least most of it.)("There's a hole in the bucket."/"There's a hole in my bucket.")(Other lyrics?)(Anything else off?)(Barbituate/Barbiturate)(Winston Marsalis/Wynton Marsalis)(Other spellings?)(Jeff Conway/Jeff Coniway/Jeff Conaway)(Other spellings?)(Carserbero Tyrone/Canserbero Tirone)(Other spellings?)(Strange old skulls discovered.)(Has the Vagina scene in Vacation changed in any way?)(Was it Penis instead of Vagina?)(Did Fonzie have a black jacket instead of a brownish one?)(Purple Brussels sprouts now exist.)(Martin Clune/Martin Clunes)(More Bermuda Triangle changes.)(More geography and bible changes.)(Aldi's/Aldis/Aldi)(Anything else off?)(Hitchike/Hitchhike)(Hitcchiker's Guide To The Universe/The Hitchhiker's Guide To The Galaxy)(Any of the logos off?)(Gavin McGinnes/Gavin McInnes)(Stevenwolf/Stephenwolf/Steffenwolf/Steppenwolf)(Other spellings?)(It's A Mad, Mad, Mad World/It's A Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World)(Anything else off?)(Grand Canyon filled with water ever?)(Did Brian Epstein die earlier or later than August 27, 1967 for you?)("Human skin" high heels?)(Tartaria and mudfloods and other stuff about that.)(Shaggy Rodgers/Shaggy Rogers)(Are any of the DuckTales related logos off?)(Is the 6teen(Sixteen?)logo off?)(Multiple rainbows in one place.)(Circit/Circut/Circuit)(Andy Sandberg/Andy Sanberg/Andy Samberg)(Automoble/Automobile)(Moble/Mobile)(Lady Gaga "It's true!" or "Enough!" sound anomaly or something else.)(Winnie The Pooh is sometimes Winnie-The-Pooh.)(Star RideStarideStarrider)(Mayan CalendaMaya Calendar)(Is India's poverty way worse out of nowhere?)(Has the BJ's Wholesale Club logo changed?)(Lots more logo changes.)(Other spellings of Andy Samberg?)(Other spellings of Jack Dempsey?)(The Sopranos missing scenes.)(Powder Reed from Powder now has violet purple eyes instead of blue.)(Guy has leg amputated and has friends eat tacos out of his unattached foot.)(Teens now eat tide pods and drink boiling tampon water to get high.)(George Wilson from Dennis The Menace being called John sometimes.)(Dairy Queen Chill & Grill/Dairy Queen Grill & Chill)(Longhorn Steakhouse/LongHorn Steakhouse)(BucaneeBuccaneer)("Al Capone tried to make this town his house."/"Al Capone tried to make that town his house.")(Other lyrics?)(Anything else off?)(Lots of new changes.)(Scott Bayo/Scott Baio)(Kenneth Coppeland/Kenneth Copeland)(Bucky's/Buckee's/Buc-ee's gas station)(Other spellings?)(Blaine's/Blain's grocery store)(Other spellings?)("Go cat go."/"Go cats go.")(10 megabyte discs in the 1960's?)(Star Trek shirt emblems keep changing.)(Shrek head butt(Headbutt?)or karate chop scene?)(As Long As You Love Me by Backstreet Boys changed lyrics.)(Just Give Me A Reason by P!nk changed lyrics.)("Once you pop, you just can't stop."/"Once you pop, you can't stop." Pringles slogan)("It's a good time for the great taste of McDonald's."/"It's a good time for the great taste at McDonald's." McDonald's jingle. Sometimes the former.)(The Fonz jacket and shirt many inconsistent colors.)(Fonzy/Fonzie)(Happy Days logo changed with connected letters amd modernized font.)(John Ritter is now September 11, 2003 instead of earlier or later.)("She's 5'2"." vs. "She's fine too." Lil Wayne & Lloyd sound anomaly.)(Blues Sarenco/Blues Saraceno)(Other spellings?)(Actor in Turner & Hooch has changed.)(Barry Schenk/Barry Scheck)(Other spellings?)(Bealls/Bells local retail chain)(Anything else off?)(Anheiser Bush/Anheuser-Busch)(Didn't the real life guy who looks like Ken from Barbie die?)(More Monty Python And The Holy Grail scene changes.)(Carmen Bicondova/Camren Bicondova)(Other spellings?)(Did Under Armour not exist for you?)(Did the movie Practical Magic not exist for you?)(Did Fantasy Island park in Long Island, New Jersey not exist for you?)(People acting like trees?)(Kingfishers can keep their head still while doing things.)(Anything else off?)(Cow with three horns?)(Sebastian/Bastian The NeverEnding Story character)(Other spellings or names?)(Do you remember a green or yellow tank in Wacky Races?)(Scull/Skull)(Sceleton/Skeleton)(Other spellings of Existence?)(Have you heard of the Kennedy City Honor awards?)(Have you heard of the movie London Affair?)(Janet DuBois/Ja'Net Du Bois)(Other spellings?)("Can't hold it back anymore."/"Can't hold me back anymore." Frozen song.)(Were Abraham Lincoln and Thomas Jefferson Christians?)(Missing Paul Ryan quote regarding two Republicans being paid by Putin.)(Some spiders breastfeed their babies.)(James Dean was with a passenger during his car crash.)("So what's wrong with taking the back way?"/"So what's wrong with taking the back streets?")(Other lyrics?)(Have you heard of Hitler's Secret Attack On America?)(Is Marty Maraschino's last name pronounced different?)(Dry Bones from Mario now has green hands and feet.)("Anger's shaking in my hands."/"Pistol's shaking in my hands.")(Other lyrics?)(Anything else off?)("I don't want no scrubs."/"I don't want no scrub.")(Other lyrics?)(Other spellings of Criss Angel?)(Kakapo parrot now exists.)(CommentoCommenter)("There she goes."/"There she go.")(Any other lyrics off?)(Any of their logos off?)(The La's song.)(Do you remember Carol Channing dying earlier than January 15, 2019?)(Weird rat worm creature found in UK.)(Accross/Across)(The La Las/The La's band)(Anything else off?)(Bird that moves like Michael Jackson?)(Caterpillar with dragon head?)(Elon Musk cameo in Iron Man 2.)(Blue tarantulas now exist.)(Does the LongHorn Steakhouse logo look off?)(Clariol/Clairol)(Marocco/Morocco)(Other spellings?)(Zillo/Zillow)(Other spellings?)(Zak Bagan/Zak Bagans)(Other spellings?)(Lloyd Groseman/Loyd Grossman)(Other spellings?)(Was Loyd never an acceptable spelling of Lloyd?)(A man renovated a hotel just so he could murder hundreds of people.)(Two secret moons surrounding earth.)(Wispa Bites/Bitsa Wispa)(Does the logo look off?)(Other names?)(Princess Of Mars/A Princess Of Mars)(Other names?)(Do any of the logos look off?)(John Carter Of Mars/John Carter)(Other names?)(Do any of the logos look off?)(Richman Gordmans/Gordmans)(Other names?)(Do any of the logos look off?)(Pete Best is now alive.)(The number of children Adam & Eve have had.)(Jumping Jack Flash/Jumpin' Jack Flash)(Do any of the lyrics seem off?)(Has Vincent van Gogh's name is sometimes pronounced different?)(The way sub sandwich bread at Subway is cut has changed.)(1950's show predicts Donald Trump and the wall.)(Costa S looks off now.)(Were the Rupert Bear lyrics "Everybody say his name.", "Everybody knows his name.", or "Everybody sing his name." or something else?)(Anything else off?)(There was a great meat shower in Kentucky on March 3, 1876.)(Have the lyrics in Escape (The Piña Colada Song) changed?)(Do you remember "Animal" not being said in Physical by Olivia Newton-John?)(Do you remember just Dairy Queen?)(Julius Caesar wasn't the first Roman emperor and other Roman history changes surrounding it.)(Sleep wrinkles now exist.)(Albino porcupines now exist.)(Blue chickens now exist.)(Dancing With Wolves/Dances With Wolves)(Bread is actually bad and dangerous to waterfowl.)(Small lyrical changes.)(Do you remember the Spinal Tap logo being normal?)(Anything else off?)(Motorhead/Motörhead)(Anything else off?)(Does the dots above the O symbol look off?)(Queensryche/Queensrÿche)(Any logos look off?)(Anything else off?)(L'ORÉAL Paris 666 Babylon Intense Red hair dye.)(Bubonic Plague used to be eradicated.)(Lightning not always being vertical.)(GP movie rating?)(Did an X rating mean only 18 years of age instead of 17?)(Gus D'Amato/Cus D'Amato)(Other spellings?)(The Wet Ones logo now has connected letters.)(Habit Burger now has tilted B and messed up I.)
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=q3-lyiCq2wM
https://www.reddit.com/Retconned/comments/afoif1/emerald_swallowtail_papilio_palinurus_4_winged/
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=4u3xBuSGxhQ
https://www.reddit.com/Retconned/comments/adxw3banana_eel_african_queen_1951_in_technicolor_now/
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=qDK6HgOmIyI
https://genius.com/R-kelly-i-believe-i-can-fly-lyrics
6513.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember these things being different or not a thing?(Stone forests appearing in more places, Madagascar has completely changed, Pharoah's Serpent, deadly flamboyant cuttlefish and they can hypnotize their prey, Marie Antoinette's tall ship hairdo and other weird hairdos, more changes to everything about world's oldest living people, Christmas pickle and lots of weird stuff about it, Santa Claus is being said to live near the north pole and Lapland and places other than the north pole, we don't float on magma, new changes to blue lava volcanoes and other weird volcano stuff, arc lamp and stuff surrounding it, Gramme machine and stuff surrounding it, more changes to Spanish Inquisition history, more changes to Ring Of Fire, more glass animals and new changes to them, Earth's crust leaking water into the water, deep water cycle, new dog with Mickey Mouse ears, strange earthquakes, more The Last Supper changes, tons of presidents before George Washington, 4000 year-old termite mounds visible from space, Thames tunnel, Mandarin ducks, rainbow grapes were real a few days ago, more fish that can climb trees, black palm cockatoo, Robert Bobroczky and stuff surrounding him, fake sunrise, you can get bubbles from a certain plant and other stuff surrounding the weird plant, more rainbow bodies of water, multiple changes to Cern logos and other Cern logos, radioactive rocks make ice piece the size of Rhode Island disappear, more changes to Elizabeth Taylor's eyes, Medula Oblongora/Medulla Oblongota, 10% of Europeans are safe from HIV, feather leg warmers, California and mandating solar power, Ursula Andrews/Ursula Andress, people who have black eyes, and more large and weird cattle.)(Video below.)
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=E32oR4brBJk
6514.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember Coca-Cola Life not being a thing?(Does the logo look off?)(Did Pepsi True not exist?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coca-Cola_Life
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pepsi_True
6515.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember these things being different or not a thing?(Female hyenas all have male parts, seagulls kill whales, lakes have to have pipes added to prevent carbon dioxide explosions, bombings in US were common in US 100 years ago, vikings had lyric rap battles, goliath frogs, monk seals with eel in nose, you used to have to pose nude to attend many major universities, Alexander Graham Bell didn't invent telephone, Viking and Curiosity rover landings are nuclear powered, history of electric wind, clouded leopards in zoos, lithopedions, Nubian pyramids, terrorists shot Marion Berry and took over D.C., dwarf deer, people can develop green blood and live, LIDAR since 1970, Wi-Fi/WiFi, LiFi(Li-Fi?)is now a thing, Eli Whitney(Ely Whitney and has the pronunciation changed?)didn't invent the cotton gin.)(Video below.)
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=NnOygXNhDqA
6516.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember the Elvis sandwich only having peanut butter and banana on it instead of bacon too?(Did the Fool's Gold Loaf not exist?)(Did Elvis actually invent the Elvis sandwich?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peanut_butter,_banana_and_bacon_sandwich
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fool%27s_Gold_Loaf
6517.(Real Life appearance change.)Do you remember Saint Nicholas originally wearing white clothing instead of tan or green clothing?(The origin of the red santa suit also keeps changing.)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santa_suit
6518.(Real Life appearance change.)Do you remember Goliath being much taller than just over 6 feet?
https://www.accordancebible.com/Goliath-LXX
6519.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember these things being different or not a thing?(Mirrored eyes, more moon changes, more weird stuff during earthquakes, lunar eclipses and everything surrounding them, why the moon rotates and other stuff, moon tides and other stuff, lots of weird new spiders, more DEW related stuff, more weird lightning, more Shiva changes, more The Last Supper changes, more Mount Rushmore changes, more Land O'Lakes changes, more The Creation Of Adam changes, more American flag changes, more Sphinx changes, more anatomy changes, more new bear changes, O'Reilly logo changed again, Walmart logo changed again, Target logo now has weird stuff in the negative space in the letters, devil's tower, Cern putting mummy in LHC, more weird stuff in the sky, keloids and other weird stuff with skin, Subaru logo changed again, Book of Enoch, more planet placement changes, weird stuff going on with the horsemen of the apocalypse, swelling is much worse, human growth may be accelerating, rainbow falls, freezing fog, disco clam, mother of all demos, first and second red scares, great Boston fire, bursitis is different, Yosemite falls, crucifixes and their connection to Christmas, more tech before its time, more new big cats.)(Video below.)
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=7LFQ3ak78Rw
6520.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember these things being different or not a thing?(More Lincoln Memorial changes, ice chandeliering, supercooled water, animals and bugs having their own pets, low dose radiation is good for you, lots on global dimming, meteotsunami, sandstorm lighting, dry lightning, lakes in the desert, gloves with bullet ants and other weird rituals and bulket ants didn't exist, Rabbit Island, Japanese Cat Island and animal islands in general, Snake Island, Book Of Genesis and Apollo 8, lots of new islands and geography, more Tiananmen Square changes, more on impossible colors, ground and trees and other things "breathing", more Chick-fil-A changes, many new animals and animal changes and weirdness, triboluminescent snow.)(Video below.)
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=ZP5oda05Wa0
6521.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember these things being different or not a thing?(More Lord's Prayer changes, more Easter Island statue changes, snow falling on Mars, green dragon tail, lavender scare of the 1950's, jatinga bird suicide, nacreous cloud, cricket virus controls cricket behavior, more changes to Nan Madol, Dollar Store or The Dollar Store was never an official chain and Dollar Tree and Family Dollar and Dollar Tree and similar stores used to not exist, more on Columbus not discovering America, snow in Australia and New Zealand, more flying lemur and flying fox changes, Lake Las Vegas, Las Vegas Bay, more Mount Rushmore changes.)(Video below.)
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=PKjG2js5NrY
6522.(Product name change.)Cheese Strings/Cheestrings(Other spellings and is the logo off?)
https://cheestrings.net
6523.(Date change.)Do you remember Colleen Ballinger announcing her pregnancy earlier or later than June 2018?
https://www.tubefilter.com/2018/06/29/colleen-ballinger-miranda-sings-pregnant/
6524.(T.V. Show Quote change.)"Good morning sluts."/"Good morning slits."
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scream_Queens_(2015_TV_series)
6525.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember Brisk tea being the one with the snowman instead of Nestea?
https://forgottenadvertisements.wordpress.com/2011/08/14/nestea-snowman/
6526.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember the gangster movie footage in the first two Home Alone movies being real?
https://ew.com/movies/2018/12/26/home-alone-movie-fake-seth-rogen-chris-evans/
6527.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember these things being different or not a thing?(Waffle rock, spider makes fake spiders, more new Stonehenge like places, more on the caracal, selenelion, tophacious goat, halo traction, leaf butterfly and more new leaf abd stick insects, towers of Bologna, ice hair, frost flowers, scoliosis is much more serious, selenite crystals, more weird monkeys and weird new changes in monkeys, susuk, more on Freddy Krueger.)(Video below.)
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=6Nx0o1bXSMU
6528.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember these things being different or not a thing?(Darth Vader's cape is now more skirt-like, thousands of baby spiders come out of spider after its squashed and the whole thing about spiders caring for their young a lot more, narlugas, live cyclops goat and calf, whales now hunt with bubbles, saiga with bulbous eyes, reverse slope hearing, the heart is not a pump, more audio illusions, shimmering in bees, caterpillars travel in piles, The Great Uncomformity Period Of Geology, tartaria tablets, bald python pit organs have changed and jaws separate in the front now, lots of wild animals like horses and monkeys and lynx can get super fat now, spiders eat more of their prey now, spiders that kill mosquitoes, more trees cocooned in spider webs, how sound works, Asian giant honeybees, ears and nose cartilage grows through life.)(Video below.)
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=cObcIsCSYwA
submitted by iminterestingplease to Retconned [link] [comments]


2014.03.10 12:54 amdewstow This Sub has Reached 1K+ Cards!

This Sub has Reached 1K+ White Cards!
And here they are :
"Long live the king"
"No" not meaning "No"

420YOLOSWAG

$100
$20
1 man, 1 jar
1.21 Gigawatts
100 horse size ducks.
1337 Sp3ak.
2 tooled up niggers with a blowtorch and some pliers
400 BABIES!!
7 bare chested black men and a Puma on a lead
70's bush.
70's porn bass lines.
9/11
A 2 inch tongue punch to the butt.
A 20 piece Chicken McNugget meal for one.
A 6 inch turkey on wheat with lettuce tomato pickles mayonnaise mustard and just a couple of banana peppers
A banana for scale
A barbwire fleshlight.
A baseball bat dildo.
A big bowl of spiderwebs
A Big, Scaly Dragon Dick.
A bollock caught in an electric whisk
A booby-trapped Cookie Bouquet
A box full of terrible foreign candy.
A broken rubber band, a ball of lint, and a faded receipt.
A bucket full of horse semen, poured into your gaping mouth and all over your naked body.
A bucketful of bull semen
A bunch of ducks in a zip-up costume.
A bunch of fucking naggers
A cactus
A carpet that matches the drapes
A CATastrophe
A center for ants.
A Chode
A cocktus
A cold harrowing scream echoing around a dark prison
A con within a con within a con. It's conception.
A conjugal trailer at the children's hospital.
A crotchless burqa.
A Cub Scout camp out at Neverland Ranch
A cyborg Kodiak bear with a flamethrower and a jet pack. It can also breathe underwater and only be defeated by love.
A day care Fight Club.
A dead baby in a clown costume.
A dentist whose fingers smell like they've been scratching their ass for the past twenty minutes.
A dick so big and black no light can escape from it
A dick that won't fit and an ass that won't quit.
A dishonorable discharge.
A dog making YOU lick peanut butter off ITS balls
A Double-Double enema
A dramatic reading of an Internet comments fight
A dream where you find your self standing in sun-god robes on top of a pyramid with a thousand naked girls screaming and throwing little pickles at you.
A dream within a dream within a wet dream
a drunk prom date
A face-switching surgery.
A fart escaping forward between your thigh and balls.
A fart that is reborn as a queef
A Fleshlight filled with thumbtacks.
A Fleshlight full of thumbtacks.
A funky ball of tits from outer space
A geriatric penis erect in defiance of God's will.
A giant, frothy mug of Santorum
A gigantic box of freshly-made poutine.
A GILF
A godlike sexual appetite.
A government funded racially driven euthanasia program
A Groupon for a hooker
A hammer thrown by the mighty Thor
A handjob from Edward Scissorhands.
A hands free orgasm
A high functioning sociopath who solves crimes.
A hilarious failed suicide attempt.
A Holocaust blooper reel
A hooker with an Adam's Apple the size of her balls.
A horse pissing into a guy's mouth.
A horsetail butt plug, a belt for a leash, and two grams of methamphetamine.
A Hot Bowl of Grits
A hovercraft full of eels.
A jar of Gypsy tears to protect you from AIDS
a jar of peanut butter, a hungry dog, and no one around to judge you.
A kaiju shaped like a penis
A latex bodysuit with a genital opening
A little baby learning to walk.
A Lukewarm Tauntaun.
A machete-wielding hitchhiker with a heart of gold
A male figure skater with bulge
A man-sized hamster wheel.
A mechanized condor with a Cockney accent, programed to follow people around that are having bad days and make fun of them
A midget with a dick that looks like a baby's arm holding an apple.
A milkshake that brings all the boys to the yard
A molester mustache.
A monkey at the zoo, presenting.
A monkey getting a blowjob from a frog.
A multimedia creampie gallery
A murder mystery party at Michael Barrymore's
A mutant child locked up in the basement.
A nativity where Mary and Joseph are white and Jesus is black.
A ninja with uncontrollable flatulence.
A one-word text from mom that just says 'soon'.
A pack of hungry dickwolves
A paper cut on the tip of your penis
A passive-aggressive fax from North Korea.
A pedophile who is honestly a really good guy, other than the pedophilia thing
A pedophile/gerontophile raping Benjamin Button.
A person who plays Cards Against Humanity like its Apples to Apples
A plastic kiddie pool, a bottle of Ipecac, one crack whore and a crisp $20 bill.
A pogo-stick knife fight.
A porn photographer airburshing out STDs.
A proctologist with poor depth perception.
A pungent queef burbling from a freshly douched twat
A puss filed vagina.
a puzzle too insanely hard to solve
A race car having sex with a porsche
A racist ghost.
A rare bird that is choking to death on an old Captain Planet toy.
A razor blade hidden in an inmate's asshole
A real life Hunger Games, with Canadians
A Reddit debate
a redwood forest of sweaty dicks.
A retarded dolphin
A romantic dinner for two with SCP-173.
A sad old man buying cat food for dinner because his wife used to do all the cooking.
A salami buttplug
A schizophrenic homeless man furiously masturbating in an alleyway in San Francisco
A second hand condom
A sex change change
A sex-deprived candlestick.
A shirtless Rick Ross
A shit load of naked Hobbits.
A shitty iMac
A shitty teenage demigod.
A shot glass full of orangutan semen.
A shot of menstrual blood
A sin so heinous, it pisses off Buddha, Jesus, Allah, your parents, and Santa Claus.
A six-speed dildo with reverse.
A six-speed vibrating dildo with reverse.
A slightly saltier surprise.
A sore asshole.
A split personality that runs amok while I'm asleep
A staring contest with Thom Yorke
A strange feeling inside.
A sudden and violent shart
A T-Rex trying to masturbate.
A tanuki's giant nutsack.
A TARDIS-Sized Vagina.
A tea-bagging gone horribly wrong
A thalidomide baby
A thick ass for slaughter.
A three wolf moon T-Shirt.
A three-way with your best friend and a stranger.
A threesome with Mr. Right hand, and Senior Left hand.
A tickle fight between Morgan Freeman and James Earl Jones
A tongue 2-inches deep in my butthole.
A toothy blowjob
A toothy vagina.
A transsexual with a fully functional 10-inch cock.
A tricked-out Ford Pinto
A trident fight
A trunk full of dead hookers
A tuba packed with manure
A Twister tournament at the leper colony.
A used condom.
A vampire fleshlight.
A vampire with gingivitis.
A very particular set of skills.
A wet fart on a dry day.
A wheelbarrow full of dead babies
A wheelbarrow full of slightly used dildos.
A white kid saying the N-Word
A whiter, tighter, vagina
A woman so cold she spreads her legs and the light comes on.
Abortion omelette.
About 17 Mexicans.
Accidental Cream pie
Accidentally committing a hate crime
Accidentally impregnating your grandma.
Achilles, played by Brad Pitt.
Actual Cannibal Shia LaBeouf
Actually clicking the 'I am under 18' button.
Actually cumming inside of Rainbow Dash
Actually fucking your mother.
Actually reading the Terms & Conditions.
Adam West as 'Uncle Batman'.
Adolph Hitler's signature mustache ride.
Advanced Leukemia
Aggressive ass play.
Alfred dressing up as the Joker to cheer up Bruce Wayne.
All of my custom cards - list
All the Neopets you left forever starving but never dying.
Amanda Todd
Ambrosia, now stuffed with raisins.
An active shooter at a movie theater
An actual elephant in the room.
An alligator death roll
An amateur colonoscopy.
An ass that hurts because you wiped too much.
An autocannabalistic midget zombie.
An awkward boner
An enormous black man dragging his balls across your face
An entire legion of my best troops.
An irrational fear of creams.
An islamist extremist cleverly dressed as a small dog.
An itchy butt-hole that can't be satisfied.
An old Cuban superhero battling a robotic death cock with his mind lightning
An Oni in a shitty anime.
An orchard of dildo trees.
An over the pants HJ
An STD scare.
An Uncomfortable Amount of Monkeys
An unlikely alliance with vampires
Anal Fissures
Anal Prolapse
Ancient Aliens.
Angry Spooning.
Angry, drunken Canadians.
Anthony Weiner.
Areola Borealis : The Glorious Sky Nipple
Ares and Thor in a dick measuring contest.
Ariel's crabs
Ariel's slightly fishy smell
ASCII PR0N
Asking the Don a favor on this, the day of his daughter's wedding.
Asparagus Pee
Assuming all handicapped people are retarded.
Autistic kids
Aztec gods in a spelling contest.
Banging a pregnant chick so hard and deep that you put it in the baby.
Banging your grandma's roommates at the nursing home.
Bat-nipples.
Bat-shark replelant.
Batman bitch-slapping Robin.
Beast's sexual frustration
Beating little kids at Pokemon until they cry.
Becoming the mayor of a nursing home on Foursquare.
Beer shits.
Begrudgingly taking a shit at a bar.
Being a virgin and giving birth on Christmas.
Being a whiny little bitch.
Being aroused by a shampoo commercial
Being awaken by a kiss from a prince
Being drunk while performing a bris ceremony.
Being fingered by Freddy Kreuger.
Being sarcastic to the point where it's just pathetic and self-destructive.
Being sexually aroused by the sight of TSA's gloves.
Being so bad that Santa just shits in your stocking.
Being tasered
Being the mother fucking Metatron.
Being the very best, like no one ever was.
Being the world's foremost authority on bestiality
Being tickled until you pee.
Being trapped in Medusa's art show.
Being uncomfortable realizing you're outnumbered by members of another race.
Being visited by three men and giving gold, myrrh, and frankincense.
Ben Affleck.
Big Bird's basketball-sized cloaca.
Big Thunder Mountain
Bilbies.
Binders full of women
Black Jesus (from the future)
Black pleather suits.
Blood diamonds
Bloody Mary, Bloody Mary, Bloody Mary.
Blowing bubbles.
Blowing cum-bubbles at a funeral
Blowing your father to save his life.
Blue balls.
Blue Waffles
Boner tucks
Boob stares.
Boobies
Brawndo, the thirst mutilator.
Breaking into a blind persons house to rearrange their furniture.
Breasts. You know, jugs, honkers, twins, headlights, boobies, knockers, melons, tits, pillows, hooters, cans, funbags, coconuts, mammaries, boulders, tatas, sweater kittens.
Breath so awful, your ass gets jealous.
Bringing 25 items to the "12 Items Or Less" checkout
Broccoli farts
Bruce Campbell
Bruce Jenner.
Bukkake crossfire
Burning the Local Policeman in a big Wicker man.
Butt Chugging
Butt play
Butt-Pirates of the Caribbean
Buttseks
Buying a financially irresponsible amount of Reese 's Peanut Butter Cups.
Buying a used dildo at Goodwill.
Buying eight copies of a two-record set like a crafty consumer
By the power of greyskull!
Cable ties and chloroform
Cake farts
Campbells Chunky Kitten Soup
Cannot answer. Too drunk.
Captain Picard giving a rim job to a tribble
Carlos Mencia.
Casting magic missile at a bully.
Casually racist grandparents.
Cat memes.
Cat watching you masturbate.
Cats on the internet.
Celebrating genocide by eating turkey with friend and family.
Celebrating the anniversary of 9/11
Cerebral Palsy: The Musical
Chanting "Dick Nipples" in a crowded elevator.
Chicken flied lice
Child Services
Chinese tourists
Chocolate face
chocolate rain
Chris angel mindfreak
Chris Brown's right jab
Christian Bale.
Christmas War on Halloween, Veterans Day, and Thanksgiving.
Christmas.
Christopher Columbus.
Christopher Lee
Chucking Fruit cakes at the relative you absolutely cannot stand to see even once a year.
Chucky cheeses
Chugging a solo cup full of vodka
Cinderella's foot fetish
Cinderellas over used vagina
Circle jerk
Classy Pornography
Cleaning the bird shit out of the Enchanted Tiki Room
Clogged panties.
Closer scrutiny.
Clubbing baby seals
Comic book heroines traced from still-frames of porno.
Coming down to where you work and slapping the dick out of your mouth
Committing suicide to see what it feels like
Communism
Confused deaf people at Nelson Mandela's funeral.
Conservation of Momentum
Cookie nipples
Cool beans
Creating a theme park full of genetically-engineered dinosaurs as an elaborate plot to murder your stupid asshole lawyer.
Crusty bedding
Cthulhu (Praise be unto him).
Cunning stunts.
Daddy's whore of a girlfriend.
Dakota Fanning
Dancing like Stephen Fry.
Dany Heatley fuckin' all star
Dapper Butch Lesbians
Darwin, the Ikea monkey
Dat ass
Dead puppies.
Death by fisting
Debilitating ass cramps
Decapitated Christmas manger figures that are still lit up somehow.
Deeply inhaling the smell of someone else's shit.
Dementors
Derp
Detroit
Diabeetus.
Diarrhea
Diarrhea Forever
Diarrhea Pockets.
Dick-do
Dickbutt (with drawing)
Dickpics
Dildos, okay!?
Discovering that prostitute you hired is actually your mother.
Disgruntled Apple fan boys
Disney's Anti-Semitic agenda.
Dive bar bathroom sex.
DMX.
Doctor Faggot
Doctor Tran!
Dogs playing poker
Dogs that have bees in their mouths and when they bark they shoot bees at you. (This one gets lots of lols)
Dogs with bees in their mouth and when they bark they shoot bees at you
Doing a girl so hard, you bruise her uterus.
Doing a one handed handstand and jerking off on your own face.
Doling out the harshness.
Dolla dolla bills, y'all
Donating a used dildo to Goodwill.
Donkey Punches
Doo Doo Casserole with a side of Butt Salad
Dopamine.
Douching with boiling water
Down syndrome
Dradle made of clay.
Drinking bleach
Drinking wine out of a soda can at a kid's birthday party.
Dropping a deuce at someone else's house
Dropping used anal beads into a box of prayer beads
Drunkenly mistaking the baby's playpen for a toilet.
DSLs
Duking it out in the Thunderdome.
Dustin Penner choking on a pancake
Dwayne Johnson's cookbook.
Dying alone
Dying Hard.
Dying Hard... With a Vengeance.
Dying Harder.
Dying Hardest.
Dying in a freak gasoline fight accident.
Dyslexic children
Eatin' that ass like it was chicken chow mein.
eating an entire box of Oreos and crying yourself to sleep.
Eating an entire stick of butter.
Eating placenta as an aphrodisiac.
Eating so much that you literally explode.
Eating totinos pizza rolls directly off the pan.
Edward Snowden
Effeminate police officers riding face to face on a horse
Egg
Ejaculating colorful spring-loaded paper snakes.
Ejaculating on the cat by accident
Ending all of your doctor's sentences with, "That's what she said".
Ending up with daughters when you started with sons
Epically timing your cumshot to the drum bit in Phil Collins' "In The Air Tonight".
Eugenics, for fun and profit
Excessive masturbation that leads to "chapped dick"
Explaining David Carridine's final moments to a kindergarten class.
Extreme Clitoral Collisions
Faces of Death
Faggot sex
Family Guy cutaways.
Fantasizing about Disney Princes
Fantasizing about Disney Princesses
Fapping on the family computer.
Fapping while wearing a horse head mask.
Farting during a rimjob.
Farting in the Baptism Pool
Farting loudly in a quiet movie theater
Farting loudly in church
Fatty Patty, the plus sized love doll.
Fear boners.
Feeding a bucket of puppies into a wood chipper.
Feeling an unexpected Bulge.
Feeling so depressed that you put Tetris on and just watch the pieces stack up.
Festivus.
Fight Club
Filipino Tilt-a-Whirl operators.
Finding a baby in a dumpster
Finding a secret room in your house
Finding Nickelback's greatest hits CD in the 99 cent Bargain bin.
Finding out she has a penis.
Finding out someone's favorite animal then hunting it to extinction.
Finding out you're gay mid-blowjob.
Finding out you're not gay mid blowjob.
Finding what Darth Vader has been using Luke's extra hand for
Finger-painting with the period blood of your mom.
First Base.
Fisting a jar of mayonnaise.
Five for Fighting
Fluttershy's worryingly vast collection of preserved Animal Penises.
Following through on a fart while performing a hand stand.
Forced to love a cruel man forever or brave the Sarlacc pit
Forgetting the safe word
Franklin, the racist hand puppet
Fred Durst.
Freddy Mercury's magical, wish-granting mustache.
French kissing your brother
FUCK YOU!!!
Fucking autocorrect!
Fucking someone so hard their freckles fall off.
Fucking the "no" out of someone.
Fucking Ventra
Full-on fisting.
Furtive masturbation
Gabe Newell diving into a room full of gold coins
Gay for pay.
George Clooney.
George Zimmerman knocking up Casey Anthony.
George Zimmerman.
Get this: A corn-fed harvest mouse, a hooker, a nun, a Flemish peasant woman, whips, chains, whistles, yoyo's, a circus midget. My grandmother riding by on a bicycle giving me the finger, and a duck!
Getting a blowjob in the dark... Then finding out it was from a guy.
Getting a prostate exam from a leper who walks away with four fingers.
Getting acquitted of murder because you're white.
Getting caught looking at Transformers mpreg slash.
Getting down to business (to defeat the Huns).
Getting drunk via an enema bag
Getting dumped by a dump truck driver.
Getting hepped up on goofballs
Getting jiggy with it
Getting pawed inappropriately by Tigger
Getting so drunk you have sex with your best friend... and it was absolutely terrible!
Ghost ridin' tha whip
Gifts.
Girl on girl on girl on girl on girl on guy on sheep.
Girl on girl on girl on guy in girl on girl action
Girls with low self esteem.
Giving a sponge bath to an old man
Giving birth in a salvation army bathroom
Giving birth to an Ewok
Going camping alone, and waking up to an ass full of lube.
Going to a magic show and getting upset.
Gonaherpasyphilitis.
Gonorrhea that was totally worth it
Good old-fashioned 1950's misogyny
Gripping your boner and wildly waving it around while making light-saber noises.
Grundlebutter
Guy Fieri's ample pubic mound
Hades.
hairy nipples
Hakuna Matata!
HAL-PC
Half.
Ham sandwich chairman.
Hanukkah's seven days versus Christmas's two.
Harold Ramis busting ghosts AS a ghost.
Haters hatin'
Having a hooker blow you until cum shoots out of her nose.
Having a recurring dream of Jesus and I playing Earthworm Jim for the Sega Genesis.
Having a shamrock shake in September
Having an evil stepmother
Having an orgy with your parents
Having gum on your shoe
Having really hot, wet sex on your period.
Having to use the restroom at the sketchy WalMart.
Having your intestines sucked out by a pool drain.
Having your junk inhaled by Kirby for the strangest blowjob ever.
HEAD ON! Apply directly to the forehead. HEAD ON! Apply directly to the forehead.
Helen Keller's Driving School.
Hellen Keller's Dog
Hermaphrodite.
Hickory-smoked horse buttholes.
Hilary Clinton's Crusty Vagina.
Hilter's House of Barbeque
Hitching a ride on the Bangbus
Hitler memorabilia.
Hitler's Gas Bill
Hitting a motherfucker with another motherfucker.
Hitting speed bumps at full speed while getting road head.
Ho hos and ding dong
Hoarding
Hodor.
Holding hands with a boy for the very first time
Holographic charizard pokemon card
Homeopathic birth control
Honey boo boo
Hoodrats
Horny Shapeshifter Zeus.
Hot, American dickings!
Humping the couch cushions
I don't know how I got sick, but I suspect it had something to do with ______.
I'm positive, HIV positive
Ian McKellan
Immediate regret
Instead of getting a Christmas bonus this year, the boss if enrolling everyone in a jelly of the month club. It's the gift that keeps on giving.
Intensely perverted secret Santa gifts.
Invading Poland....again.
Irregular Boner
It's a Small World
IT'S A TRAP! (With a drawing of Ackbar)
Izanagi's god-producing strip show.
Ja Rule.
Jacking off so much that your dick gets chapped.
Jacking off to your crush's Instagram page
Jackson Galaxy, Cat Behaviorist
Jafar in Genie form
Jailbait.
Jane Goodall motorboating a gorilla's floppy milk jugs.
Jean Chrétien's good side
Jeff Dunham fucking his puppets.
Jerking off with Lava® soap
Jesus doing a guitar solo.
Jesus letting a kid die, because the photo only got 998 likes
Jimmy Saville unyielding signing crippled girl's breasts
Joan Rivers.
John Goodman, smashing a Corvette with a crowbar while screaming "This is what happens when you fuck a stranger in the ass!"
Jorts
Jumping balls-first down a flight of stairs to brutally teabag someone.
Jumping off of the Golden Gate bridge.
Justin Bieber's baby wiener
Ke$ha.
KFC double down
Kick!
Kicking Kittens.
Kicking puppies.
Killing your parents to get your inheritance
Killing your parents to get your inhertence
King Joffrey.
Kinky Retard Tetherball.
Kittens riding a roomba
Klondike bar
Knucklebabies
Korn.
Kratos, the God of War.
Kryptonite Ring.
Kum and Go
Kwanza.
Labia Menorah.
Ladies' underwear purchased from a vending machine.
Left handedness
Leo's Oscar cabinet
Let's split up, gang, Fred said.
letting the dog lick it clean
Licking her piss-flaps.
Licking Jasmine's "magic carpet."
Like a virgin, Touched for the very first time.
Liking big butts, and being unable to lie about it
Live. Laugh. Lick a Labia.
Living Free or Dying Hard.
Living under power lines
Locking eyes with a masturbating hobo.
Loki being Loki.
Long balls
Longinus.
Loosing the condom deep inside a vagina.
Losing a tickle fight to Alex Trebek
Losing ten thousand dollars betting on the Puppy Bowl.
Lou Gehrig's Disease
Luring an unsuspecting toddler into my bouncy castle of seduction.
Lying to children
Lying to terminally ill children about their life expectancy.
Macho Man Randy Savage
Making a merkin out of public toilet pubic hairs.
Making children cry for fun and profit.
Making sweet love to a really sexy sheep.
Making sweet, sweet love to an ambulance
Mall cops on segways.
Man-on-dog enthusiast Rick Santorum.
Manti Te'o's Girlfriend.
Mary Poppins
Masked strangers who knock on your door in the middle of the night.
Masturbating before your nurse comes back.
Masturbating to "Memoirs of a Geisha"
Meat Sweats
Mel Gibson.
Men's Beach Volleyball
Method Man sewing your asshole closed and feeding you, and feeding you, and feeding you.
Michael J. Fox's Hand-Spun Milkshakes.
Michael Jackson's jock strap
Michael Keaton.
Microwave cooking for one
microwaved babies
Midget porn and the Benny Hill theme, A lap dance from a crying stripper
midgets in a fuck and suck circle
Miley Cyrus's tongue.
Moderate to severe chronic plaque psoriasis
Moistness
Mordor.
More cowbell.
Morgan Freeman.
MOTHERFUCKING CTHULHU
Mouth fucking Alzheimer's patients
Mr. Rogers after he finally snaps.
Mr. Rogers soothingly narrating his actions as he methodically slaughters a village full of children.
Mrs Clause having an affair wile Santa is out working on Christmas Eve.
Muhammad Ali in a Jenga tournament.
Murphy's Law
My beef swellington.
My dick in a box.
My fairy godmother
my former druggie friends
My grandmother's musty leather kayak
My hot, teenage daughter
My vintage collection of Kirk/Spock slashfic.
nasal penetration
Never brushing your teeth.
Neverland ranch
NiggAs (not niggERs)
Nikola Tesla's insane ball-lightning death ray.
Nonstop suction
Norman Reedus
North Korea's Special Ninja Army
Not fitting in.
Not getting enough Likes for my boring selfie!
Not having to pay Casey Anthony child support
Not knowing how to properly interact with a news reporter because you're black.
Numberwang!
Obese Jessica Simpson
Odin
Oh, my God. He shit everywhere. There's shit everywhere! Damnit! There's shit on the windows! Oh, my God! My house is full of shit! He shit everywhere! Look what he did! He shit all over the walls! There's shit everywhere
Ol' Dirty Bastard aka Ol' Dirt Dawg aka Dirt McGirt aka Big Baby Jesus.
Old Gregg
One more Jack and coke
One of those "t" pendants
Oompa Loompas shitting into the chocolate river.
Oops, Poop Soup
Orange Mocha Frappuccinos!
Orgy of seven dwarves
Packs of scissors that you need scissors to open.
Painful and awkward gay sex with two straight males
Painful nipple erections.
Palpable unhappiness
Parking in a handicapped spot, and not being handicapped
Partying so hard you pass out behind a dumpster, covered in vomit, and a homeless person uses your face for a urinal.
Partying so hard you throw up a condom.
Passive eugenics.
Patrick Kane tittyfucking a 4/10
Patrick Stewart
Paul Walker's drive thru BBQ.
Paula Deen frantically throwing butter in a bowl
Paula Deen's butter flavored vagina
Paying the Iron Price for a Klondike Bar
Penile shrinkage.
Penis
People "allergic" to gluten
Performing a "4th trimester abortion" and blaming SIDS.
Picking up women at the abortion clinic.
Pineapple juice.
Piss Shivers.
Playing "hot or not" at a preschool
Playing "never-have-I-ever" against Charlie Sheen.
Playing twister with an amputee.
Playing twster with amputees.
Playing your tin whistle whilst marching all of the children out of Africa and into Bangladeshi sweatshops
Plowing his virgin butthole with a strap-on
Pocahontas.
Poop
Pooping so hard your tampon falls out.
Pooping with the door open.
Popping a molly
Porkie Pig singing the back up vocals to C&C Music Factory's Everybody Dance Now
Poseidon.
Post bukkake sneeze.
Pow!
Pow! Kick! Punch!
President Sarah Palin
Prime Minister Tony Abbott's two hot daughters
Prince Harry's "Prince Hairy"
Prince-on-prince action.
Princess Diana's rotting corpse
Procrastination
Profiting from the suffering of untold millions.
Prom Night Dumpster Baby
Prostate orgasms.
Pubic shavings.
pumping breast milk the day after a bender so that your baby doesn't get wasted
Punch!
Punching a tree to gather wood.
Putting all the bibles in the Fiction section at the bookstore.
Putting hot sauce on your penis.
Putting up a flamboyantly decorated fir tree when you are Jewish.
Putting up a menorah when you are Christian.
Putting your hand out for a handshake, then pulling it back and slyly moving it through your own hair.
Queen Elizabeth's haunted lizard snatch
Queer bait
Quiabelagayo, Mayan God of S&M.
Rachael Ray's weird boobs.
Racist Michael Richards
Rahm Emmanuel's missing finger.
Rainbow Parties.
Raining top shelf pussy from the sky. only to find out in this dream you have no dick.
Ramadan.
Rapist, Necrophiliac Ducks
Realizing too late that there is no toilet paper left
Reindeer semen.
Responding to a fight by striping down naked.
Returning some videotapes
Richard Simmons in a pink, sparkly tank top
Riding a Sybian with uncontrollable diarrhea
Riding a tandem bicycle alone
Ripping a cheek-flappingly loud fart at a funeral during the moment of silence.
Rob Ford
Roberto Luongo shitting his pants
Rodents of unusual size.
Ron Jeremy's massive equine dong.
Rudolph's glowing red snot.
Running over children for sport
Russian dashboard cameras.
Santa Clause cumming in all the bad girl's chimneys.
Santa's accidental erection.
Sarcasm so intense that it circles back to sincerity.
Sasha Grey and her trinity of penis-ravaged orifices
Sassy replies from Siri
Saying "hashtag" in everyday conversation.
Scrapers
Second Base.
Secretly hoping your parents will die soon so you can collect your inheritance
Seeing your life flash before your eyes, and realizing it was kind of shit.
Seeing your naked reflection on the computer screen while the video loads.
Semen
Sending your significant other a message by shitting on the floor in front of the toilet instead of in the toilet.
Separate but equal.
Setting fire to a children's hospital
Sex on the floor of a children's hospital bathroom.
Sexually abusing the mentally handicapped
Sexually Aggressive Pit Bulls
Sexually confused gods and goddesses.
Sexually molesting a precious childhood toy
Sharks with freakin “lasers” on their head.
Shennanigans
Shitting and eating at the same time
Shitting cum into an evidence bag
Shitting on any moment of decency.
Shitting out an unopened beer bottle
Shoddy habit for humanities houses.
Shooting RoboCop in the mouth
Shouting into your penis like it's a microphone
Shower Farts
Shrek.
Single digit checking account balances.
Six gummy bears and some scotch.
Six pack baby Jesus from those reinaissance paintings
Skittles and Arizona iced tea
Sleeping for a century
Sleeping in random places on campus because it is easier than going home.
Slow dance boners.
Slow dance erections
Slow motion penile helicoptering.
Slutting your way to the top
Small talk with your hairdresser.
Smell of a freshly opened pack of new cards.
Smelling a used dildo from Goodwill.
smiling pile of poo
Smothered by a lovers cankle
Sneezing then finding out you have explosive diarrhea
Sniffing used panties
Snoop Dizzle, my nizzle
Snuggie
Snugglefucking
So much anal that a fart sounds just like tuba.
Some fun south of the mouth
Some kind of sexy Yggdrasil.
Some kind of sexy Yggdrassil.
Some Stupid Thing Making The Rounds Among Your Facebook Friends Today
Sometimes that shark, he looks right into you. Right into your eyes. You know the thing about a shark, he's got...lifeless eyes, black eyes, like a doll's eye. When he comes at ya, doesn't seem to be livin'. Until he bites ya and those black eyes roll over white. And then, ah then you hear that terrible high pitch screamin' and the ocean turns red and spite of all the poundin' and the hollerin' they all come in and rip you to pieces.
Spanking the monkey all day
Speaking progressively louder to foreigners.
Spending time with Grandpa and Grandma.
Spinning Teacups
Splash back from a sizable turd.
Spunk bubbles
Squirting
Stacy's mom, who has it going on
STAND DOWN, MEGATRON!, Optimus Prime shouted.
Staying home every night, downloading increasingly shameful pornography.
Stealing from the church collection thing
Stepping on a lego
Steve Irwin dying the way he lived his life - with animals in his heart.
Steve Jobs' Ghost
Stone Cold Steve Austin.
Straight up dog shit right in your god damned face.
Sucking a Dick at a truck stop
Sucking dick for Buffalo nickels
Sudan
Suge Knight.
Suing your parents on Judge Judy.
Summoning Sickness.
Super Adventure Club
Superman's other weakness: horseback riding.
Surprise butsecks.
Surreptitiously bringing a woman to climax with a bread stick at the classiest restaurant in town.
Surviving The Boston Marathon
Swallowing a live grenade for a £5 bet
Sweet black pussy
Sweet nun-chuck skills
Sweet, virgin pussy.
Synchronized squirt
Taco Bell
Taking a dump in the ball pit at Chuck E Cheese.
Taking a job as a high school janitor to find a new girlfriend.
Taking a shit when someone's in the shower.
Taking an arrow to the knee
Taking yoga lessons just to see some ass.
Tarzan's flaccid penis.
Tasha Yar's Rape Gang
Tasteful nudes of Mary Poppins
Taylor Swift's Love Life
Team Iceland (from 'D2: The Mighty Ducks')
Tears as lubricant
Ted Bundy
Ted Cruz.
Telling kids that the Toostie Rolls are actually processed reindeer crap.
Texting and driving
Texting while driving
That baby monkey clinging to its surrogate stuffed animal mom
That episode of Full House where Uncle Jesse and Joey took turns plowing Kimmy Gibbler.
That feeling when it's A Good Day to Die Hard.
That feeling when it's not A Good Day to Die Hard.
That feeling you get when you have to take a dump
That person who talks on the phone in the bathroom.
That place where I put that thing that time.
That secret you keep from your spouse
The $19.99 Do-It-Yourself White Trash Wedding
The 'World hide and seek champion' trophy with Madeleine McCann's name on slowly gathering dust in a Portuguese police station
The 1984 Denver Broncos
The 4th annual 'kids with polio' roller derby
The 5-hole.
The arms of the t-rex
The asshole sitting on my right
The Band Syndrome of A Downs
The battered women's shelter
The bed intruder.
The bits of Diana they were able to pull from the bent up tuna can of a wreckage
The BP oil spill
The Brave Little Toaster
The budding breasts of an 11 year old girl
The Bunny Ranch
The Burning Bush - A Heal by Prayer STD Clinic
The Canadians are coming, the Canadians are coming!!!!!
The constant sticky glisten of Ron Jeremy.
The critically acclaimed disaster porn, 69/11
The Cult of Crossfit
The current edition of Muhammad Ali
The depression that ensues after catching 'em all.
The Derek Zoolander School for Kids Who Can't Read Good and Want to Do Other Stuff Good Too.
The dry season.
The Ellen Degeneres School of Muff Diving.
The episode of "Saved by the Bell" where Jesse gets hooked on caffeine pills
The episode of Diff'rent Strokes where Arnold gets sexually assaulted by the bike clerk
The ever-popular scroterboat.
The excitement of eating at a fast food chain restaurant not found in your hometown.
The first 10 minutes of "Bruno"
The Flying Spaghetti Monster.
The Foot Clan.
The Furies.
The G.I. Joe VA Hospital Waiting Room play set.
The Great Old Ones.
The gunt; the fuck gut; the fat upper pussy area (FUPA).
The Hanson Brothers.
The honey bee from old country buffet
The introduction of a habañero chili pepper into a bottle of lube.
The introduction of habanero chile pepper juice into a bottle of personal lubricant.
The joyous gift of fatherhood
The kids that Gary Glitter turned down
The last time I had an erection.
The little string-bridge that connects the glans to the shaft.
The love child of Adolph Hitler and Taylor Swift... Tadolph Switler.
The Lusty Argonian Maid
The magazine drawer at a male fertility clinic.
The Magical Negro
The mile run in gym class
The morning after pill
The most beautiful girl in the room.
The Nobel Peace Prize
The nobleman, God's highest creation.
The people of Walmart
The Picard Maneuver.
The Pillsbury Doughboy frantically pounding on the glass of an oven door.
The Pint of No Return
The poison for Kuzco. The poison specifically chosen for Kuzco. Kuzco's poison.
The Poon-Tang Clan
The public drilling of wetlands.
The puss from a dick pimple.
The racist crows from Dumbo
The remotely-accessible federal database of every kiddie porn image ever made.
The sense of holiday spirit you feel while buried to the hilt in the cold, uncooked guts of your Thanksgiving turkey.
The shattered remains of all my hopes and dreams.
The smallest, whitest dick.
The soft, warm, silky interior of an unwilling sheep
The sound Gilbert Gottfried makes when someone extinguishes a cigar on his neck.
The Speech from Independence Day.
The Srebrenica massacre.
The stigmata.
The sweet, sweet taste of taint
The testicles of beavers.
The theme from schindlers list
The Walk of Shame.
The war on Festivus.
The whole motherfucking pantheon!
Thick, ropy strands.
Thinking of the children
Thom Yorke's left eye.
Thomas Jefferson's sexy slave mistress
Those happening kids in their new wave kicks
Those meddling kids.
Those sweaters with 3 cats on the front and the back has the cats from behind with their assholes on them.
Three Asian strippers, two porn stars, and a suitcase full of blow.
Three lines of coke, two Asian strippers, and one hell of a story
Throwing buckets of fish guts over an expectant crowd
Throwing up after blackout drinking and finding flecks of sumo wrestler smegma in your vomit.
Tickling someone until they pee.
Tim Minchin making out with Russell Brand
Tim Tebow.
TIM-MAAAAAAAY!!!
Titty-fucking contests.
Toe nail clippings
Tom Cruise's alleged homosexuality
Tom Cruise' Manny Fanny
Tommy Lee's manmeat
Torturing a Sim modeled after your ex.
Toys.
Traveling back in time to become your own grandfather
Trayvon Martin.
Tricking kids into getting in your van.
Trolling Craigslist for to get laid.
Trombone noise.
Trying not to accidentally shit on Santa's lap.
Trying to solve your problems with a drone missile strike.
Trying to urinate with an erection.
tubgirl
Tuna
Twat breath
Twatwaffle
Twincest
Two for Hooking.
Two for Slashing
Two people banging behind a dumpster at 6am on a Sunday in Tuscaloosa, Alabama.
Two retards playing tetherball
Type-II Adult-Onset Diabetes
Ugly stepsisters
ULTRA-LESBIAN-DEATH-MACHINE
Uncle Remus
Uncle Touchy's naked puzzle basement.
Uncomfortable thigh contact with an old man on the bus.
Uncomfortably sitting next to a handicapped person
Uncrustables. or PB&J with the Crust Cut Off.
Unloading a truckload of babies with a pitchfork.
Unnecessary hashtags
Unnecessary Surgery Land.
Unrealistic romantic expectations.
Unsightly muffintops
Upper Decker Double Blumpkin
Urethal splinter torture
Using "anal" as an adjective.
Using "hashtag" in everyday conversation.
Using 4Chan for parenting advice.
Using a banana for scale
Using only 20% of my power
Using ranch dressing as anal lube.
Using wasabi for lube.
Using your penis as a helicopter
Vagina dentata!
vaginal discharge
Vaginal Hubris
Vaginal snail trail
Vajazzling so often that you queef glitter.
Val Kilmer.
Victims of Newtown.
Victorian-era sexuality
Violence.
Violent Christmas movies.
Virgin Goddesses.
Vishnu using all her hands to masturbate
Voiding your bowels after dying, only to get resuscitated immediately afterwards.
Voldemort's shriveled trouser snake.
Vomiting in a crowded elevator.
Waiting till marriage, then finding out your so is a trap.
Waking up in your tent with an ass covered in lube... and you went camping alone
Wanking to old family photos
Washing you asshole so clean you fart bubbles.
Washing your asshole so thoroughly you fart bubbles for days
Watermelon and fried chicken
Wayne Enterprise buying out The Daily Planet.
Wearing the genitals of a defeated enemy around your neck as a trophy.
Weather so cold, you can key a car with your icy cold nipples.
What Hitler would have wanted.
What I paid your mom to do last night
What she said
What the fuck do you think, Captain Skinny Dick?
Whatever fits in my butt
Whatever hot dogs are made of
Wheelchair Jimmy
When a chopstick and a urethra make sweet, sweet love.
When it sounds like a boot stuck in mud.
Whipping your hair back and forth
Whipping your penis around while making lightsaber noises.
Who's down with OPP?
Whoa, Big Gulps huh? Alright! Well, see ya later!
Whoopi Goldberg, naked
Why not Zoidberg?!
Wilford Brimley's moustache
Winnie The Pooh sensually rubbing Christopher Robin's erect penis with hunny
Winning a drag race against Paul Walker.
Wondering if Australia has a white Christmas.
Wondering why people celebrate Christmas when Jesus was Jewish.
Working as a porno theatre janitor
World Geriatric Stripping Championship.
Wu Tang Clam
XML.
Yippee ki-yay, Mother Russia.
Yippee ki-yay, Motherfucker.
Yoga pants
You People
Young faces with braces
Your Dad's secret boyfriend
Your face.
Your husband
Your mom LAST NIGHT
Your older sister revealing she has Ice powers after you reveal you are marrying a man she only met today.
Your spouse dazed, confused, and farting uncontrollably while passed out on the bathroom floor
Zaphod Beeblebrox, President of the Galaxy
Zero Fucks Given!
Zeus.
Zip Zop Bippity Bop: Bill Cosby Sex Tape
Zumba
[REDACTED]
[Trollface]
submitted by amdewstow to cahideas [link] [comments]


2014.02.01 10:09 IdmeetEgo Of the bird and the bee.

Organisms of many species are specialized into male and female varieties, each known as a sex.[1] Sexual reproduction involves the combining and mixing of genetic traits: specialized cells known as gametes combine to form offspring that inherit traits from each parent. Gametes can be identical in form and function (known as isogamy), but in many cases an asymmetry has evolved such that two sex-specific types of gametes (heterogametes) exist (known as anisogamy). By definition, male gametes are small, motile, and optimized to transport their genetic information over a distance, while female gametes are large, non-motile and contain the nutrients necessary for the early development of the young organism. Among humans and other mammals, males typically carry XY chromosomes, whereas females typically carry XX chromosomes, which are a part of the XY sex-determination system.
The gametes produced by an organism determine its sex: males produce male gametes (spermatozoa, or sperm, in animals; pollen in plants) while females produce female gametes (ova, or egg cells); individual organisms which produce both male and female gametes are termed hermaphroditic. Frequently, physical differences are associated with the different sexes of an organism; these sexual dimorphisms can reflect the different reproductive pressures the sexes experience.
Contents [hide] 1 Evolution 2 Sexual reproduction 2.1 Animals 2.2 Plants 2.3 Fungi 3 Sex determination 3.1 Genetic 3.2 Nongenetic 4 Sexual dimorphism 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links Evolution
Main article: Evolution of sexual reproduction It is considered that sexual reproduction in eukaryotes first appeared about a billion years ago and evolved within ancestral single-celled eukaryotes.[2] The reason for the initial evolution of sex, and the reason(s) it has survived to the present, are still matters of debate. Some of the many plausible theories for the appearance of sexual reproduction include: the creation of variation among offspring, to spread advantageous traits, the beneficial removal of disadvantageous traits, and that sex evolved as an adaptation for repairing damage in DNA. (See the evolution of sexual reproduction.)
While there are a number of theories, there are two main alternative views on the evolutionary origin and adaptive significance of sex. The first view assumes that sexual reproduction is a process specific to eukaryotes, organisms whose cells contain a nucleus and mitochondria. In addition to sex in animals, plants, and fungi, there are other eukaryotes (e.g. the malaria parasite) that also engage in sexual reproduction. On this first view, the adaptive advantage that maintains sexual reproduction (in competition with asexual modes of reproduction) is the benefit of generating genetic variation among progeny. Furthermore, on this view, sex originated in a eukaryotic lineage. The earliest eukaryotes and the bacterial ancestors from which they arose are assumed to have lacked sex. For instance, some bacteria use conjugation to transfer genetic material between cells; and while not the same as sexual reproduction, this also results in the mixture of genetic traits. The reason that bacterial conjugation is not the same as sexual reproduction is that the numerous genes necessary for conjugation are not located on the bacterial chromosome, but on small circular DNA self-replicating parasitic elements called conjugative plasmids. Thus, conjugation arises from an adaptation of parasitic DNA for its own transmission.[3]
The second alternative view on the evolutionary origin and adaptive significance of sex is that sex existed in early bacteria as the process of natural transformation, a well studied DNA exchange process still in existence in many present day bacterial species (see Transformation (genetics)). Transformation involves the transfer of DNA from a donor to a recipient bacterium. Recipient bacteria must first enter a special physiological state, termed competence, to receive donor DNA (see Natural competence). The numerous genes necessary for establishment of competence are located on the bacterial chromosome itself. Thus the process of transformation is likely beneficial to bacteria, and can be regarded as a simple form of sex. In general, competence is induced under stressful conditions, such as nutrient limitation and exposure to DNA damaging agents, as reviewed by a number of authors.[4][5][6] Sex, on this view, was present in the earliest single-celled eukaryotes because they were descended from ancestral bacteria capable of transformation. Sex was maintained as an adaptation for repairing DNA damage (see Evolution of sexual reproduction). In particular, meiosis the key stage of the sexual cycle of eukaryotes, in which genetic information derived from different individuals (parents) recombines, was likely derived from the analogous, but simpler, genetic information exchange and DNA repair process that occurs during transformation in bacteria[7][8][9][10] (and also see Meiosis, section: Origin and function of meiosis). Thus, by this view, sex appears to have evolved in bacteria as a way of repairing DNA damages induced by environmental stresses, was maintained through the prokaryote/eukaryote boundary, and continued to evolve in higher multicellular eukaryotes, in part, as a DNA repair process.
What is considered defining of sexual reproduction in eukaryotes is the difference between the gametes and the binary nature of fertilization. Multiplicity of gamete types within a species would still be considered a form of sexual reproduction. However, no third gamete is known in multicellular animals.[11][12][13]
While the evolution of sex itself dates to the prokaryote or early eukaryote stage, the origin of chromosomal sex determination may have been fairly early in eukaryotes. The ZW sex-determination system is shared by birds, some fish and some crustaceans. Most mammals, but also some insects (Drosophila) and plants (Ginkgo) use XY sex-determination. X0 sex-determination is found in certain insects.
No genes are shared between the avian ZW and mammal XY chromosomes,[14] and from a comparison between chicken and human, the Z chromosome appeared similar to the autosomal chromosome 9 in human, rather than X or Y, suggesting that the ZW and XY sex-determination systems do not share an origin, but that the sex chromosomes are derived from autosomal chromosomes of the common ancestor of birds and mammals. A paper from 2004 compared the chicken Z chromosome with platypus X chromosomes and suggested that the two systems are related.[15]
Sexual reproduction
Main article: Sexual reproduction Further information: Isogamy and Anisogamy
The life cycle of sexually reproducing organisms cycles through haploid and diploid stages Sexual reproduction in eukaryotes is a process whereby organisms form offspring that combine genetic traits from both parents. Chromosomes are passed on from one generation to the next in this process. Each cell in the offspring has half the chromosomes of the mother and half of the father.[16] Genetic traits are contained within the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of chromosomes—by combining one of each type of chromosomes from each parent, an organism is formed containing a doubled set of chromosomes. This double-chromosome stage is called "diploid", while the single-chromosome stage is "haploid". Diploid organisms can, in turn, form haploid cells (gametes) that randomly contain one of each of the chromosome pairs, via meiosis.[17] Meiosis also involves a stage of chromosomal crossover, in which regions of DNA are exchanged between matched types of chromosomes, to form a new pair of mixed chromosomes. Crossing over and fertilization (the recombining of single sets of chromosomes to make a new diploid) result in the new organism containing a different set of genetic traits from either parent.
In many organisms, the haploid stage has been reduced to just gametes specialized to recombine and form a new diploid organism; in others, the gametes are capable of undergoing cell division to produce multicellular haploid organisms. In either case, gametes may be externally similar, particularly in size (isogamy), or may have evolved an asymmetry such that the gametes are different in size and other aspects (anisogamy).[18] By convention, the larger gamete (called an ovum, or egg cell) is considered female, while the smaller gamete (called a spermatozoon, or sperm cell) is considered male. An individual that produces exclusively large gametes is female, and one that produces exclusively small gametes is male. An individual that produces both types of gametes is a hermaphrodite; in some cases hermaphrodites are able to self-fertilize and produce offspring on their own, without a second organism.[19]
Animals Main article: Sexual reproduction in animals
Hoverflies engaging in sexual intercourse Most sexually reproducing animals spend their lives as diploid organisms, with the haploid stage reduced to single cell gametes.[20] The gametes of animals have male and female forms—spermatozoa and egg cells. These gametes combine to form embryos which develop into a new organism.
The male gamete, a spermatozoon (produced within a testicle), is a small cell containing a single long flagellum which propels it.[21] Spermatozoa are extremely reduced cells, lacking many cellular components that would be necessary for embryonic development. They are specialized for motility, seeking out an egg cell and fusing with it in a process called fertilization.
Female gametes are egg cells (produced within ovaries), large immobile cells that contain the nutrients and cellular components necessary for a developing embryo.[22] Egg cells are often associated with other cells which support the development of the embryo, forming an egg. In mammals, the fertilized embryo instead develops within the female, receiving nutrition directly from its mother.
Animals are usually mobile and seek out a partner of the opposite sex for mating. Animals which live in the water can mate using external fertilization, where the eggs and sperm are released into and combine within the surrounding water.[23] Most animals that live outside of water, however, must transfer sperm from male to female to achieve internal fertilization.
In most birds, both excretion and reproduction is done through a single posterior opening, called the cloaca—male and female birds touch cloaca to transfer sperm, a process called "cloacal kissing".[24] In many other terrestrial animals, males use specialized sex organs to assist the transport of sperm—these male sex organs are called intromittent organs. In humans and other mammals this male organ is the penis, which enters the female reproductive tract (called the vagina) to achieve insemination—a process called sexual intercourse. The penis contains a tube through which semen (a fluid containing sperm) travels. In female mammals the vagina connects with the uterus, an organ which directly supports the development of a fertilized embryo within (a process called gestation).
Because of their motility, animal sexual behavior can involve coercive sex. Traumatic insemination, for example, is used by some insect species to inseminate females through a wound in the abdominal cavity – a process detrimental to the female's health.
Plants
Flowers are the sexual organs of flowering plants, usually containing both male and female parts. Main article: Plant reproduction Like animals, plants have developed specialized male and female gametes.[25] Within most familiar plants, male gametes are contained within hard coats, forming pollen. The female gametes of plants are contained within ovules; once fertilized by pollen these form seeds which, like eggs, contain the nutrients necessary for the development of the embryonic plant.
Pinus nigra cone.jpg Pine cones, immature male.jpg Female (left) and male (right) cones are the sex organs of pines and other conifers. Many plants have flowers and these are the sexual organs of those plants. Flowers are usually hermaphroditic, producing both male and female gametes. The female parts, in the center of a flower, are the carpels—one or more of these may be merged to form a single pistil. Within carpels are ovules which develop into seeds after fertilization. The male parts of the flower are the stamens: these long filamentous organs are arranged between the pistil and the petals and produce pollen at their tips. When a pollen grain lands upon the top of a carpel, the tissues of the plant react to transport the grain down into the carpel to merge with an ovule, eventually forming seeds.
In pines and other conifers the sex organs are conifer cones and have male and female forms. The more familiar female cones are typically more durable, containing ovules within them. Male cones are smaller and produce pollen which is transported by wind to land in female cones. As with flowers, seeds form within the female cone after pollination.
Because plants are immobile, they depend upon passive methods for transporting pollen grains to other plants. Many plants, including conifers and grasses, produce lightweight pollen which is carried by wind to neighboring plants. Other plants have heavier, sticky pollen that is specialized for transportation by insects. The plants attract these insects with nectar-containing flowers. Insects transport the pollen as they move to other flowers, which also contain female reproductive organs, resulting in pollination.
Fungi Main article: Mating in fungi
Mushrooms are produced as part of fungal sexual reproduction Most fungi reproduce sexually, having both a haploid and diploid stage in their life cycles. These fungi are typically isogamous, lacking male and female specialization: haploid fungi grow into contact with each other and then fuse their cells. In some of these cases the fusion is asymmetric, and the cell which donates only a nucleus (and not accompanying cellular material) could arguably be considered "male".[26]
Some fungi, including baker's yeast, have mating types that create a duality similar to male and female roles. Yeast with the same mating type will not fuse with each other to form diploid cells, only with yeast carrying the other mating type.[27]
Fungi produce mushrooms as part of their sexual reproduction. Within the mushroom diploid cells are formed, later dividing into haploid spores—the height of the mushroom aids the dispersal of these sexually produced offspring.
Sex determination
Main article: Sex-determination system
Sex helps the spread of advantageous traits through recombination. The diagrams compare evolution of allele frequency in a sexual population (top) and an asexual population (bottom). The vertical axis shows frequency and the horizontal axis shows time. The alleles a/A and b/B occur at random. The advantageous alleles A and B, arising independently, can be rapidly combined by sexual reproduction into the most advantageous combination AB. Asexual reproduction takes longer to achieve this combination, because it can only produce AB if A arises in an individual which already has B, or vice versa. The most basic sexual system is one in which all organisms are hermaphrodites, producing both male and female gametes—this is true of some animals (e.g. snails) and the majority of flowering plants.[28] In many cases, however, specialization of sex has evolved such that some organisms produce only male or only female gametes. The biological cause for an organism developing into one sex or the other is called sex determination.
In the majority of species with sex specialization, organisms are either male (producing only male gametes) or female (producing only female gametes). Exceptions are common—for example, in the roundworm C. elegans the two sexes are hermaphrodite and male (a system called androdioecy).
Sometimes an organism's development is intermediate between male and female, a condition called intersex. Sometimes intersex individuals are called "hermaphrodite"; but, unlike biological hermaphrodites, intersex individuals are unusual cases and are not typically fertile in both male and female aspects.
Genetic
Like humans and other mammals, the common fruit fly has an XY sex-determination system. In genetic sex-determination systems, an organism's sex is determined by the genome it inherits. Genetic sex-determination usually depends on asymmetrically inherited sex chromosomes which carry genetic features that influence development; sex may be determined either by the presence of a sex chromosome or by how many the organism has. Genetic sex-determination, because it is determined by chromosome assortment, usually results in a 1:1 ratio of male and female offspring.
Humans and other mammals have an XY sex-determination system: the Y chromosome carries factors responsible for triggering male development. The default sex, in the absence of a Y chromosome, is female. Thus, XX mammals are female and XY are male. XY sex determination is found in other organisms, including the common fruit fly and some plants.[28] In some cases, including in the fruit fly, it is the number of X chromosomes that determines sex rather than the presence of a Y chromosome (see below).
In birds, which have a ZW sex-determination system, the opposite is true: the W chromosome carries factors responsible for female development, and default development is male.[29] In this case ZZ individuals are male and ZW are female. The majority of butterflies and moths also have a ZW sex-determination system. In both XY and ZW sex determination systems, the sex chromosome carrying the critical factors is often significantly smaller, carrying little more than the genes necessary for triggering the development of a given sex.[30]
Many insects use a sex determination system based on the number of sex chromosomes. This is called X0 sex-determination—the 0 indicates the absence of the sex chromosome. All other chromosomes in these organisms are diploid, but organisms may inherit one or two X chromosomes. In field crickets, for example, insects with a single X chromosome develop as male, while those with two develop as female.[31] In the nematode C. elegans most worms are self-fertilizing XX hermaphrodites, but occasionally abnormalities in chromosome inheritance regularly give rise to individuals with only one X chromosome—these X0 individuals are fertile males (and half their offspring are male).[32]
Other insects, including honey bees and ants, use a haplodiploid sex-determination system.[33] In this case diploid individuals are generally female, and haploid individuals (which develop from unfertilized eggs) are male. This sex-determination system results in highly biased sex ratios, as the sex of offspring is determined by fertilization rather than the assortment of chromosomes during meiosis.
Nongenetic
Clownfish are initially male; the largest fish in a group becomes female For many species, sex is not determined by inherited traits, but instead by environmental factors experienced during development or later in life. Many reptiles have temperature-dependent sex determination: the temperature embryos experience during their development determines the sex of the organism. In some turtles, for example, males are produced at lower incubation temperatures than females; this difference in critical temperatures can be as little as 1–2 °C.
Many fish change sex over the course of their lifespan, a phenomenon called sequential hermaphroditism. In clownfish, smaller fish are male, and the dominant and largest fish in a group becomes female. In many wrasses the opposite is true—most fish are initially female and become male when they reach a certain size. Sequential hermaphrodites may produce both types of gametes over the course of their lifetime, but at any given point they are either female or male.
In some ferns the default sex is hermaphrodite, but ferns which grow in soil that has previously supported hermaphrodites are influenced by residual hormones to instead develop as male.[34]
Sexual dimorphism
Main article: Sexual dimorphism
Common Pheasants are sexually dimorphic in both size and appearance. Many animals and some plants have differences between the male and female sexes in size and appearance, a phenomenon called sexual dimorphism. Sex differences in humans include, generally, a larger size and more body hair in men; women have breasts, wider hips, and a higher body fat percentage. In other species, the differences may be more extreme, such as differences in coloration or bodyweight. In humans, biological sex is determined by five factors present at birth: the presence or absence of a Y chromosome, the type of gonads, the sex hormones, the internal reproductive anatomy (such as the uterus in females), and the external genitalia.[35]
Sexual dimorphisms in animals are often associated with sexual selection – the competition between individuals of one sex to mate with the opposite sex.[36] Antlers in male deer, for example, are used in combat between males to win reproductive access to female deer. In many cases the male of a species is larger than the female. Mammal species with extreme sexual size dimorphism tend to have highly polygynous mating systems—presumably due to selection for success in competition with other males—such as the elephant seals. Other examples demonstrate that it is the preference of females that drive sexual dimorphism, such as in the case of the stalk-eyed fly.[37]
Other animals, including most insects and many fish, have larger females. This may be associated with the cost of producing egg cells, which requires more nutrition than producing sperm—larger females are able to produce more eggs.[38] For example, female southern black widow spiders are typically twice as long as the males.[39] Occasionally this dimorphism is extreme, with males reduced to living as parasites dependent on the female, such as in the anglerfish. Some plant species also exhibit dimorphism in which the females are significantly larger than the males, such as in the moss Dicranum[40] and the liverwort Sphaerocarpos.[41] There is some evidence that, in these genera, the dimorphism may be tied to a sex chromosome,[41][42] or to chemical signalling from females.[43]
In birds, males often have a more colourful appearance and may have features (like the long tail of male peacocks) that would seem to put the organism at a disadvantage (e.g. bright colors would seem to make a bird more visible to predators). One proposed explanation for this is the handicap principle.[44] This hypothesis says that, by demonstrating he can survive with such handicaps, the male is advertising his genetic fitness to females—traits that will benefit daughters as well, who will not be encumbered with such handicaps.
See also
Sex and gender distinction References
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Arnqvist, G. & Rowe, L. (2005) Sexual conflict. Princeton University Press, Princeton. ISBN 0-691-12217-2 Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, and Walter P (2002). Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th ed.). New York: Garland Science. ISBN 0-8153-3218-1. Ellis, Havelock (1933). Psychology of Sex. London: W. Heinemann Medical Books. xii, 322 p. N.B.: One of many books by this pioneering authority on aspects of human sexuality. Gilbert SF (2000). Developmental Biology (6th ed.). Sinauer Associates, Inc. ISBN 0-87893-243-7. Maynard-Smith, J. The Evolution of Sex. Cambridge University Press, 1978. External links
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